Dr. William K. Smith CV

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CURRICULUM  VITAE

 

DR. WILLIAM  KIRBY SMITH

Charles H. Babcock Chaired Professor in Botany
Department of Biology
Wake Forest University Winston-Salem,  NC  27109-7325
Tel: 336-758-5779
FAX: 336-758-6008
Email: smithwk@wfu.edu
Website: http//wksmithlab.org/

 

EDUCATION

1968             California State University, San Diego, B.S. (biology/physics)

1969-71        California State University, San Diego, M.S.(animal physiological and biophysical ecology)

Advisor, Professor Phillip C. Miller (deceased)

1972-77        University of California, Los Angeles, Ph.D. (plant biophysical/physiological ecology),

Advisor, Distinguished Professor Park S. Nobel

 

MILITARY

1968-69           Commissioned Naval Aviator, U.S. Naval Air Station, Pensacola,

Florida; active duty U.S.S. Coral Sea, Honorable Disability Discharge

 

ACADEMIC  POSITIONS

1979-             Assistant Professor of Botany,  University of Wyoming

1983             (Spring Semester) Visiting Assistant Professor of Botany, University of Hawaii

1983-88         Associate Professor of Botany,  University of Wyoming

1985    (Spring semester)  Visiting Associate Professor of Botany, University of Hawaii

  • Professor of Botany, University of Wyoming
  • 1992 (Spring semester)  Visiting Professor of Botany, University of Western Australia, Perth

1995-6           Professor and Interim Head, Department of Botany, UW

1998-pres     Charles H. Babcock Endowed Chair in Botany, Department of Biology, Wake Forest University

2002-3          Visiting Fellow, Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, Japan

2003-4          Visiting Scholar, Republic of Georgia Institute of Botany, Tbilisi, Georgia (FSU)

 

ADMINISTRATIVE  EXPERIENCE

Univ Wyoming

1977-1981       Faculty Senator for Botany Department

1979-1986       Supervisor, Botany Department Greenhouse (Now the UW Conservatory), U Wyoming

1979-1986       Biological Field Station Co-director (with G.J. Baxter), University of Wyoming

1981-1983       Tenure and Promotion Committee, College of Arts and Sciences

1981-1984    Executive Nominating Committee, AAAS (Southwest and Rocky Mountain section)

1982-4             President, Colorado-Wyoming Academy of Sciences

1982-3             Vice-chairman, Botanical Sciences Section, Southwestern and Rocky Mountain Section of AAAS

1983-4          Chair, Botanical Sciences Section, Southwestern and Rocky Mountain Section of AAAS

1986-8          Chair, Arts and Sciences Central Committee (faculty advisory committee to Dean)

1987-8             Chair, University Review Committee for new Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, UW

1989-1991    Chair, Faculty Summer Fellowship Award Committee, Arts and Sciences

1990-1             Interdisciplinary Speakers Committee

1990-2             Chair, University Tenure and Promotion Committee

1994-6            Chair, University Review Committee for Department of Geography and Recreation, UW

1995-6            Chair, University Review Committee for Facilities Planning and Architecture       Department

1995-6             Interim Head, Department of Botany

1996-7          member, Arts and Sciences Review Committee for review of all A&S departments

1997-2000    member, review panel, Agricultural Experiment Station Grant Competition (Hatch funds)

 

Wake Forest Univ

1998-2000, 2006      Member, Science Research Fund Committee, A&S

1998- 2002     Greenhouse Supervisor

2005-    Chair, Vecellio Graduate Research Award Committee

2011-present       Associate Director- Center for Energy, Environment and Sustainability;

 

TEACHING  RESPONSIBILITIES

University of Wyoming (1977-1998)–While at Wyoming I taught Biol. 1000 or 1010 and Bot. 5720 both semesters and have alternated Bot. 4750 with Bot. 5760 during the spring semester.  I also taught Bot. 5750 every fall semester and Bot. 5770 about once every three years, and Bot. 673D during summers (5 wk session) each summer from 1978 to 1985.  I have always received very good to excellent student and peer evaluations of my teaching and was nominated for a Golden Apple Award on three different occasions in both the majors and non-majors freshmen biology course.

 

            -Wake Forest University (1998-present)—primary courses:  Biol 113 (Ecology and Evolutionary Biology); Biol. 347-8 (Plant Physiological Ecology); Biol. 777 (Biophysical Ecology).

 

CURRENT (Lect/Seminar) COURSES (WFU) CREDITS ENROLLMENT
Bio 113 Gen. Biol.Bio 347-8 Plant Physiological Ecology     43-4 200-30015-20
Bio 777 Biophysical Ecology     3   10 – 20
Bio 732 Plant Evolution Seminar     2  10- 20
Bio 724 Research in Plant Physiological Ecology    1-3   1-3
Bio 744 Independent Study  in Plant Physiol EcolBio 390 Research Experiences for UndergraduatesBio 114 Comparative Physiology  1-61-3 

4

1-31-3 

72

                                

RESEARCH  INTEREST

Plant adaptation to harsh or unusual environments; plant ecophysiology (temperature, water and carbon relations, water use efficiency); environmental biophysics ( microclimate effects on plant growth and distribution); structural/functional relationships of plant leaves; light absorption efficiency of plant crowns and canopies; spectral signatures of plant stress; radiation frosts, low temperature photoinhibition (including UV effects), mechanisms of UV absorption, eddy diffusion and stable isotope analysis of CO2 and H2O exchange from native and crop species, aerial sensing of spectral properties and CO2 exchange of plants.

 

CURRENT  RESEARCH  PROJECTS/ACTIVITIES

Effects of global climate change on high elevation forests with an emphasis on timberlines/treelines in the western US and the relic spruce-fir forests of the southern Appalachian Mountains; mechanisms of young seedling survival and forest regeneration; impacts of extreme, episodic events on the vegetative stability of barrier island ecosystems; effects of cloud-immersion on mountaintop forest species; anthocyanin pigments in leaves and photoinhibition of photosynthesis.

 

AWARDS  AND  HONORS      

Burlington Northern Award for Academic Achievement, 1990. Univ of Wyoming

Presidential Award for Distinguished Faculty Scholarship, Univ. of Wyoming, 1991.

Doctoral Dissertation Mentor Excellence Award 1996, Special (first-time) award from the Graduate School, University of Wyoming.

Meritorious Award for Research, Department of Botany, UW (1992, 1994, 1995, 1997)

Nominated for Apple Award for Teaching in large freshman courses (Gen. Biol.), UW (1990, 1992,      1994)

Doctoral Dissertation Advisor Award, College of Arts & Sciences, University of Wyoming  (1986, 1988, 1991, 1993, 1995, and 1996).

 

INVITED  PUBLIC  ENGAGEMENT

“Plants in the Understory”, 1996.  Discovering Life Series,  The Private Life of Plants, David Attenborough, BBC.  Segment describing our research on sunlight processing by leaves, leaf surface water repulsion, etc. (with TC Vogelmann)

“Ecophysiological adaptations in alpine plants”, 1996.  Excerpt (pg. 620) in Biology, 4th edition, P. Raven and R. Johnson, featuring work done by undergraduate and graduate students in my laboratory.

“Colorful Snow May Yield Secrets for Hardy Crops”, 1998. Science and Technology section, The Christian Science Monitor, Wends. Jan. 8, 1998.

“Light and Leaves”, 1998.  Invited article, “The Future of Science, Encyclopedia Britanica, Annual Volume: 1231-1233.

“The Alpine Forest” Smith, WK., Reinhardt, KA, and DM Johnson. 2006. The Alpine Forest.  In The

Encyclopedia of Ecology: Elsevier, NY.

“Why are evergreen trees pyramid shaped” Earth Sky Broadcasts

“Alpine flowers can predict rainfall”  Indiana Univ Radio

         

 

EDITORIAL  POSITIONS                                     

Editorial Board,  Ecology  (1992-96)

Subject Editor,  Tree Physiology  (1990-present)

Editor,  Physiological Ecology of Coniferous Forest,  Physiological Ecology Series, Academic Press, NY. 376 pgs. (1994)

Editor,  Resource Physiology of Conifers: Acquisition, Allocation and Utilization.  Physiological Ecology Series, Academic Press, NY. 336 pgs. (1994)

Editor,  Photosynthetic Adaptation: Chloroplast to Landscape, Ecological Studies 178, Springer, NY, 316p (2004).

Editorial Board, Tree Physiology (2003-2007)

Editorial Advisory Committee, Eurasian Journal of Forest Research, 2005-present                        

Nature Reader, 2008-present

Editorial Board, J Botany 2007-present

Co-Editor with Eric De La Cabrerra.  2008.  Current Perspectives in Biophysical Ecophysiology, Univ Calif Press,  in press.

                                                                        

AGENCY  REVIEW  PANELS

         Physiological Ecology and Population Biology, NSF (1984, 1988, 1992, 1994, 1996, 1998)

Plant Response to the Environment, USDA Competitive Grants Program (1990, 1995)

Ecosystem Response Program, DOE (1993-4)

Ecology Panel, NSF (1993-5)

Committee on Atmospheric Climate Change, Batelle Scientific, DOE (1992-94)

EPSCoR Review Committee, NSF (1994-6)

Science Review Board, US Forest Service, Fort Collins, CO (1990-present)

Joint Program on Terrestrial Ecology and Global Change, NSF ,DOE, NASA, U.S. EPA and USDA (1995-8)

Doctoral Dissertation Awards in Ecology, NSF (1997-2000)

Agricultural Experiment Station Review Panel, USDA Forest Service (1996-2004)

Science and Technology Centers, Integrative Partnerships panel, NSF (2001-2003)

Ecological and Evolutionary Physiology, Environmental Systems and Structure panel, NSF (2006- 2007, 2010)

Global Change Biology review panel, DOE (2013-14)

         Graduate predoctoral fellowship panel, NSF (2012-14)

                            

REFEREED  PUBLICATIONS

Smith, W.K. and P.C. Miller. 1973. The thermal ecology of two south Florida fiddler crabs, Uca rapax Smith and U. pugilator Bosc. Physiol. Zool. 46(3): 186-207.

Smith, W.K., Roberts, S.W. and P.C. Miller. 1974. Calculating the nocturnal energy expenditure of an incubating Anna’s hummingbird. Condor 76(2): 176-183.

Nobel, P.S., Zaragoza, L.J. and W.K. Smith. 1975. Relation between mesophyll surface area, photosynthetic rate, and illumination level during development for leaves of Plectranthus parviflorus Henckel. Plant Physiol. 55: 1067-1070.

Smith, W.K. and P.S. Nobel. 1977. Temperature and water relationships for sun and shade leaves of a desert broadleaf Hyptis emoryi. J. Exp. Bot. 28: 171-185.

Smith, W.K. and P.S. Nobel. 1978. Influence of seasonal changes in leaf morphology on water use efficiency for three desert broadleaf shrubs. Ecology 58: 1033-1043.

Smith, W.K. 1978. Leaf Temperatures of desert plants: Another perspective on the adaptability of leaf size. Science 201: 614-616.

Smith, W.K. and P.S. Nobel. 1978. Influence of irradiation, soil water potential, and leaf temperature on leaf morphology of a desert broad leaf, Encelia farinosa Gray (Compositae) Amer. J. Bot. 75:429-4320

Smith, W.K. And G.N. Geller. 1979. Plant transpiration at high elevations: theory, field measurement, and comparisons with desert plants. Oecologia 41: 109-122.

Young, D.R. and W.K. Smith. 1979. Influence of sunflecks on the temperature and water relations of two subalpine understory congeners. Oecologia 43: 194-205.

Smith, W.K. 1980. Importance of aerodynamic resistance to water use efficiency in three conifers under field conditions. Plant Physiol. 65: 132-135.

Smith, W.K. and G.N. Geller. 1980. Leaf and environmental parameters influencing transpiration at high elevation: Theory and field measurement. Oecologia 46: 308-314.

Young , D.R. and W. K. Smith. 1980. Influence of sunlight on photosynthesis, water relations, and leaf structure in the understory species Arnica cordifolia. Ecology. 60:1380-1390.

Smith, W.K. 1981 Temperature and water relation patterns in subalpine understory plants. Oecologia 48: 353-359.

Allen, M.F., Smith, W.K., Moore, T.S. and M. Christensen. 1981. Comparative water relations and photosynthesis of mycorrhizal and non‑mycorrhizal Bouteloua gracilis. New Phytologist 88: 683-693.

Knapp, A.K. and W.K. Smith. 1981. Water relations and succession in subalpine conifers in southeastern Wyoming. Botanical Gazette 142: 502-511.

Geller, G.N. and W.K. Smith. 1982. Influence of leaf size, orientation, and arrangement on temperature and transpiration in three high elevation, large-leafed herbs. Oecologia 53: 227-234.

Young, D.R. and W.K. Smith. 1982. Simulation studies of the influence of understory location on transpiration and photosynthesis in Arnica cordifolia Hook. Ecology 63: 1761-1771.

Knapp, A.K. and W.K. Smith. 1982. Factors influencing understory seedling establishment of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) in southeast Wyoming. Canadian Journal of Botany 60: 2753-2761.

Hadley, J.L. and W.K. Smith. 1983. Influence of wind exposure on needle desiccation and mortality in timberline conifers in Wyoming, U.S.A. Arctic and Alpine Res. 15: 127-135.

Young, D.R. and W.K. Smith. 1983. Effect of cloudcover on photosynthesis and transpiration in the subalpine understory species Arnica latifolia. Ecology 64: 681-687.

Smith, W.K., Knapp, A.K., Pearson, J.A., Varman, J.H., Yavitt J.B. and D.R. Young. 1983. Influence of microclimate and growth form on plant temperatures of early spring species in a high elevation prairie community. American Midland Naturalist 109: 380-389.

Stahl, P. and W.K. Smith. 1984. Effects of different geographic isolates of Glomus on water relations of Agropyron smithii. Mycologia 76: 261-267.

Smith, W.K. 1984. Environmental limitations on leaf conductance in central Rocky Mountain conifers, USA. In: Establishment and Tending of Subalpine Forests (H. Turner and W. Tranquillini, eds.). Eidg. Anst. Forstl. Versuchwes. Rev. 270: 95-101.

Smith, W.K., Young, D.R., Carter, G.A., Hadley, J.L. and G.M. McNaughton. 1984. Autumn stomatal closure in six conifer species of the central Rocky Mountains. Oecologia 63: 237-243.

Huang, R.S., Yost, R.S. and W.K. Smith. 1983. Influence of VA mycorrhiza on growth, nutrient absorption and water relations in Leucaena leucoceplala. (LAM) Dewit Leucaena-Research-reports. 4: 86-87.

Huang, R.S., Smith, W.K. and R.S. Yost. 1985. Influence of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae on growth, water relations, and leaf orientation in Leucaena leucocephala (LAM) Dewit. New Phytologist 99: 229-243.

Foster, J.R. Smith, W.K. (1985) Influence of stomatal distribution on transpiration in low-wind environments. Plant, Cell and Environment 9, 751–759. Links

Carter, G.A. and W.K. Smith. 1985. Influence of shoot structure on light interception and photosynthesis in conifers. Plant. Physiol. 79: 1038-1042.

Smith, W.K. 1985. Chapter 5: Montane forests. In: The Physiological Ecology of North American Plant Communities (B.F. Chabot and H.A. Mooney, eds.). Chapman and Hall, Ltd., pp. 95-126.

Hadley, J.L. and W.K. Smith. 1986. Wind effects on needles of timberline conifers; seasonal influence on mortality. Ecology 67: 12-19.

DeLucia, E.H. and W.K. Smith. 1987. Air and soil temperature limitations on photosynthesis in Engelmann spruce during summer. Can. J. For. Res. 17: 527-533.

Knapp, A.K. and W.K. Smith. 1987. Stomatal and photosynthetic responses to sun/shade transitions in subalpine plants: influence on water use efficiency. Oecologia 74: 62-67.

Carter, G.A. and W.K. Smith. 1987. Stomatal conductance in three conifer species at different elevations during summer in Wyoming. Can. J. For. Res. 18: 242-246.

Hadley, J.L. and W.K. Smith. 1987. Influence of krummholz mat microclimate on needle physiology and survival. Oecologia 73: 82-90.

Smith, W.K., E.H. DeLucia and A.K. Knapp. 1987. Environmental limitations to photosynthesis in subalpine plants of the Rocky Mountains. In: Management of Subalpine Forests: Building on 50 Years of Research. USDA, USFS Public 1463, 253 pp.

Smith, W.K. and G.A. Carter. 1988. Shoot structural effects of needle temperature and photosynthesis in conifers. Amer. J. Bot. 75: 496-500.

Knapp, A.K. and W.K. Smith. 1988. Effect of water stress on stomatal and photosynthetic responses to cloud pattern in subalpine plants. Amer. J. Bot. 75: 851-858.

Carter, G.A., W.K. Smith and J.L. Hadley. 1988. Stomatal conductance in three conifer species at different elevations during summer in Wyoming. Can. J. For. Res. 18: 242-246.

Vogelmann, T.C., Knapp, A.K.,  McClean T.M. and W.K. Smith. 1988. Measurement of light within thin plant tissues using fiber optic microprobes. Physiol. Plant 72: 623-630.

Knapp, A.K., Vogelmann, T.C., McClean, T.M. and W.K. Smith. 1988. Light and chlorophyll gradients within Curcurbita cotyledons. Pl. Cell Environ. 11: 257-263.

Carter, G.A. and W.K. Smith. 1987. Microhabitat comparisons of transpiration and photosynthesis in three subalpine conifers. Can. J. Botany 66: 963-969.

Knapp, A.K. and W.K. Smith. 1989. Influence of growth form on ecophysiological responses to variable sunlight in subalpine plants. Ecology 70: 1069-1082.

Smith, W.K. and T.M. McClean. 1989. Adaptive relationship between leaf water repellency, stomatal distribution, and gas exchange. Amer. J. Botany 76: 465-469.

Henkel, T.W., Smith, W.K. and M. Christensen. 1989. Infectivity and effectivity of indigenous vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi from contiguous soils in southeast Wyoming, USA. New Phytol. 112: 205-214.

Smith, W.K., Knapp, A.K. and W.A. Reiners. 1989. Penumbral effects on sunlight penetration in plant communities. Ecology 70: 1603-1609.

Hadley, J.L., and W.K. Smith. 1989. Wind erosion of leaf surface wax in alpine timberline conifers. Artic. Alp. Res. 21: 392-398.

Day, T.A., E.H. DeLucia and W.K. Smith. 1989. Influence of cold soil and snow cover on photosynthesis and conductance in two Rocky Mountain conifers. Oecologia 80:546-552.

Knapp, A.K., Smith, W.K. and D.R. Young. 1989. Importance of intermittent shade to the ecophysiology of subalpine herbs. Funct. Ecol. 3: 753-758.

Day, T.A., DeLucia, E.H. and W.K. Smith. 1990. Dorsiventrality of the photosynthetic light response in naturally occurring C3 dicots. Current Research in Photosynthesis 4:883-886.

Knapp, A.K. and W.K. Smith. 1990. Stomatal and photosynthetic responses to variable sunlight. What’s New in Plant Physiology, Physiol. Plant 78: 160-165.

Hadley, J.L. and W.K. Smith. 1990. Influence of leaf surface wax and leaf area-to‑water content ratio on cuticular transpiration in conifers. Can. J. For. Res. 20:1306-1311.

Knapp, A.K. and W.K. Smith. 1990. Contrasting stomatal and photosynthetic responses to variable sunlight in two subalpine herbs. Amer. J. Bot. 77:226-231.

Smith, W.K. and A.K. Knapp. 1990. Ecophysiology of high elevation forests. In: Plant Biology of the Great Basin and Range. C.B. Osmond and L. Pitelka, eds., Ecological Studies Series, Springer-Verlag, London, p. 87-142.

Foster, JR and WK Smith. 1990. Stomatal conductance patterns and environment in high elevation phreatophytes in Wyoming. Canadian J Botany 69: 647-655.

Cui, M. and W.K. Smith. 1990. Photosynthesis and water relations of young seedlings of Abies lasiocarpa with high natural mortality. Tree Physiol. 8:37-46.

Day, T.A., DeLucia, E.H. and W.K. Smith. 1990. Effect of soil temperature on stem sap flow, shoot gas exchange and water potential in Picea engelmannii during snowmelt: Oecologia. 84:474-481.

Smith, W.K. and D. Hollinger. 1990. Stomatal behavior. In: Ecophysiology of Forest Trees: Techniques and Methodologies (J.P. Lassoie and T.M. Hinckley, eds.). CRC press, NY pp. 141-176.

Smith, W.K., Schoettle, A.W. and M. Cui. 1991. Importance of leaf area measurement to the interpretation of gas exchange parameters of complex shoots (e.g. conifers). Tree Physiol. 8:121-127.

Cui, M. and W.K. Smith. 1991. Seedling microenvironment, gas exchange and survival during first year establishment in subalpine conifers Tree Physiol. 10:44-53.

Knapp, A.K. and W.K. Smith. 1991. Gas Exchange responses to variable sunlight in two Sonoran Desert herbs: comparison with subalpine species. Bot. Gaz. 152(2):269-274.

Estil, K., R.H. Delaney and W.K. Smith 1991. Water relations and productivity of alfalfa chlorophyll variants. Crop Science 31:1229-1239.

Cui, M., Vogelmann, T.C. and W.K. Smith. 1991. Chlorophyll and light gradients in sun and shade leaves of Spinacia oleracea. Plant, Cell, & Environ. 14:493-500.

Brewer, C.A., Smith, W.K. and T.C. Vogelmann. 1991. Functional interaction between leaf trichomes, leaf wettability, and the optical properties of water droplets. Pl., Cell, & Environ. 14:955-962.

Foster, J.R. and W.K. Smith. 1991. Stomatal conductance patterns and environment in high elevation phreatophytes of Wyoming. Can. J. Bot. 69:647-655.

Smith, W.K. and R.A. Donahue. 1991. Simulated influence of altitude on photosynthetic CO2 uptake potential in plants. Plant, Cell & Environ. 14:133-136

Brewer, C.A., Smith, W.K. and T.C. Vogelmann. 1991. Functional interaction between leaf trichomes, leaf wettability, and the optical properties of water droplets. Pl., Cell, & Environ. 14:955-962.

Schoettle, A.W. and W.K. Smith. 1991. Interrelation between shoot characteristics and solar irradiance in the crown of Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia. Tree Physiol. 9: 245-254.

Jordan, D.N. and W.K. Smith. 1993. Simulated influence of leaf geometry on sunlight interception and photosynthesis in conifer needles. Tree Physiol. 13: 29-39.

Pennell, WT, et al. 1993. The detection of global climate change, 4th Symposium on Global Change Studies, Amer Meteor Society, Boston, MA, Jan 17-22.

Estill, K., Delaney, R.L., Ditterline, R.H. and W.K. Smith. 1993. Water relations and productivity of alfalfa populations divergently selected for leaf size. Field Crops Research. 33:423-434.

Brewer, C.A., Smith, W.K. 1994. Influence of simulated dewfall on photosynthesis and yield in soybean isolines Glycine max L. Merr. cv williams with different trichome densities. Int. J. Plant Sci. 155: 460-466.

Smith, W.K., Brewer, C.A. 1994. The adaptive importance of shoot and crown architecture in conifer trees. Amer. Nat. 143: 528-532.

Hemmerlein, M.T., Smith, W.K. 1994.  Structural scaling of light interception efficiency in Picea engelmannii and Abies llasiocarpa. Tree Physiol. 14:1139-1148.

Hamerlynk, E.P., Smith. W.K. 1994.  Subnivean and emergent microclimate, photosynthesis, and growth in Erythronium grandiflorum Pursh, a snowbank geophyte. Arctic. Apl. Res. 26: 21-28.

Jordan, D.N. and W.K. Smith. 1994.  Energy balance analysis of nighttime leaf temperatures and frost formation in a subalpine environment Agric. For. Metorol. 71:359-372.             

Smith, W.K., and T.M. Hinckley. 1994. (Eds.)  Resource Physiology of Conifers:  Acquisition, Allocation, and Utilization.  Academic Press, New York. 412 pp.

Smith, W.K., and T.M. Hinckley. 1994. (Eds.)  Ecophysiology of Coniferous Forests.  Academic Press, New York. 386 pp.

Hadley, JL and WK Smith. 1994. Effects of elevation and foliar age on maximum leaf resistance to water vapor diffusion in conifers of the central Rocky Mountains, USA. NATO ASI Series 36, Air pollution and the leaf cuticle. Eds KE Percy, JN Cape, R Jagels and CJ Simpson, Springer Verlag. pp 261-268.

Jordan, D.N. and W.K. Smith. 1995. Radiation frost susceptibility and the association between sky exposure and leaf size.  Oecologia 103: 43-48.

Jordan, D.N. and W.K. Smith. 1995.  Microclimate factors influencing the frequency and duration of growth season frost in subalpine plants. Agric. For. Meteorol 77: 17-30.

Brewer, C.A., and W.K. Smith. 1995.  Leaf surface wetness and gas exchange in the pond lily Nuphar polysepalumAmer. J. Bot. 82: 1271-1277.

Hadley, J.L., Smith, W.K. 1995. Effect of elevation and foliar age on maximum leaf resistance to water vapor diffusion in conifers of the Central Rock y Mountains, USA. In: Air Pollutants and the Leaf Cuticle, K.E. Pearcy (ed). Springer-Verlag, NATO ASI Series, Vol. G36:261-268.

Vogelmann, T.C., Nishio, J.N. and W.K. Smith. 1996. Leaves and light capture: Light propagation and gradients of carbon fixation within leaves. Trends in Plant Science 1: 65-71.

DeLucia, E. H., K. Nelson, T. C. Vogelmann, and W. K. Smith. 1996. Contribution of intercellular reflectance to photosynthesis in shade leaves, Plant, Cell & Environ.19: 159-170.

Brewer, C.A. and W.K. Smith. 1997.  Patterns of leaf surface wetness in montane and subalpine plants.  Plant. Cell & Environment 20: 1-11.

Smith. W.K., Vogelmann, T.C.., Bell, D. T., DeLucia, E. H., and K. A. Shepherd. 1997. Leaf Form and Photosynthesis.  BioScience 47:785-793.

Smith, W.K., D.T. Bell and K.A. Shepherd. 1998. Associations between leaf orientation, structure and sunlight exposure in five western Australian communities. Amer. J. Bot., 84: 1698-1707.

James, S.A., Smith, W.K., and T.C. Vogelmann. 1999. Ontogenetic differences in mesophyll structure and chlorophyll distribution in Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus (Myrtaceae).  Amer. J. Bot. 86: 198-207.

Turunen, MT, TC Vogelmann, WK Smith. 1999. Effective UV-screening in Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia) cotelydons and needles sampled from field plants.  In Responses of Plant Metabolism to Air Pollution, LJ DeKok and J. Stulen, [eds.], pp. 463-480, Backhuvs Publ., Leidon, The Netherlands.  563 pp.

Schoettle, A.W. and W.K Smith. 1999.  Interrelationships between light, photosynthesis, and nitrogen in the crown of mature Pinus contorta ssp. latifoliaTree Physiology, 19:13-22.

Hättenschwiler, S. and W.K. Smith. 1999.  Natural seedling occurrence in treeline conifers: A case study from the central Rocky Mountains, USA.  Acta Oecologia 20: 219-224..

Germino, MJ and WK Smith. 1999.  Sky exposure, crown architecture, and low temperature photoinhibition in conifer seedlings at alpine treeline.  Plant, Cell & Environment 22: 407-415.

Turunen, M. TC Vogelman and WK Smith. 1999. UV-screening in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta ssp. Latifolia) cotelydons and needles. International J. Plant Sciences, 160:315-320.

Hunt, ER Jr., Kelly, RD , Fahnestock, JT, Smith, WK, Welker, JM, and WA Reiners. 2000.  Combination of remotely sensed data and net ecosystem fluxes to estimate carbon sequestration. J. Geophysical Research,

Pataki, DE, Orem, R, and WK Smith. 2000. Sap flux of co-occuring species in a western subalpine forest during seasonal drought. Ecology 81:2557-2566.

Germino, MJ and WK Smith. 2000. Differences in microsite, plant form, and low-temperature photoinhibition in alpine plants. Artic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, 32:388-396

Pataki, DE, Orem, R, and WK Smith. 2000. Sap flux of co-occuring species in a western subalpine forest during seasonal drought. Ecology 81:2557-2566.

Germino, MJ, and WK Smith. 2000. High resistance to low-temperature photoinhibition in two alpine snowbank species. Physilogia Plantarum 110:89-95.

Slaton, MR, ER Hunt and WK Smith. 2001. Estimating near-infrared leaf reflectance from leaf structural characteristics. American Journal of Botany, 88:278-284.

Hunt, ER, JT Fahnestock, RD Kelly, JM Welker, WA Reiners, and WK Smith. 2001. Carbon sequestration from remotely sensed NDVI and net ecosystem exchange. Chapter 9 in R. S. Muttiah (ed.) From Laboratory Spectroscopy to Remotely Sensed Spectra of Terrestrial Ecosystems. Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

Bynum, MR and WK Smith. 2001. Floral movements in response to thunderstorms improve reproductive effort in the alpine species Gentiana algida (Gentianaceae). American J Botany, 88:1088-1095

Hunt, Jr., ER., RD Kelly, JT Fahnestock, Miyake BA, WK. Smith, JM Welker, and WA Reiners. 2001. Assessment of ecosystem net carbon flux data by longterm changes of Landsat MSS and Landsat 7 ETM+. American Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS 2001) Proceedings of the Gateway to the New Millenium Session 106: 52-54.

Robert D. Kelly, E. Raymond Hunt, Jr., William A. Reiners, William K. Smith, Jeffrey M Welker 2001.  Correlations of Daytime Carbon Dioxide Flux with Remotely-Sensed Vegetation Index for Four Different Mountain/Plains Ecosystems.  J. Geophysial Research

Bynum, MR and WK Smith. 2001. Floral movements in response to thunderstorms improve reproductive effort in the alpine species Gentiana algida (Gentianaceae). American J Botany, In press.

Hunt, ER Jr., Kelly, RD , Fahnestock, JT, Smith, WK, Welker, JM, and WA Reiners. 2001.  Combination of remotely sensed data and net ecosystem fluxes to estimate carbon sequestration. J. Geophysical Research, accepted.

Germino, MJ and WK Smith. 2001. Relative importance of microhabitat, plant form, and photosynthetic physiology to carbon gain in two subalpine herbs. Functional Ecology 15: 243-251.

Slaton, MR, ER Hunt and WK Smith. 2001. Estimating near-infrared leaf reflectance from leaf structural characteristics. American Journal of Botany,88:278-284.

Hunt, ER, JT Fahnestock, RD Kelly, JM Welker, WA Reiners, and WK Smith. 2001. Carbon sequestration from remotely sensed NDVI and net ecosystem exchange. Chapter 9 in R. S. Muttiah (ed.) From Laboratory Spectroscopy to Remotely Sensed Spectra of Terrestrial Ecosystems. Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

Robert D. Kelly, E. Raymond Hunt, Jr., William A. Reiners, William K. Smith, Jeffrey M Welker 2002.  Relationships between daytime carbon dioxide uptake and absorbed photosynthetically active radiation for three different mountain/plains ecosystems.  J. Geophys. Res., 107: 229-236.

Germino, MJ and WK Smith. 2002. Conifer seedling distribution and survival in an alpine-treeline ecotone. Plant Ecology, 162: 157-168.

Slaton, MR and WK Smith. 2002. Mesophyll architecture and cell exposure to intercellular air space in alpine, desert, and forest species, Int. J. Plant Sci. 163: 937-948, 2002.

Hunt, Jr., ER., RD Kelly, JT Fahnestock, Miyake BA, WK. Smith, JM Welker, and WA Reiners. 2002. Assessment of ecosystem net carbon flux data by longterm changes of Landsat MSS and Landsat 7 ETM+. American Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS 2001) Proceedings of the Gateway to the New Millenium Session 106: 52-54.

Smith, WK, RD Kelly, JM Welker, JT Fahnestock, WR Reiners, and ER Hunt. 2003. Leaf-to-aircraft measurements of net CO2 exchange in a sagebrush steppe ecosystem.  J Geophys. Res., 108 (D3), 4122, DOI 101029/2002JD001512.

Smith, WK, Germino, MJ and DM Johnson. 2003. Another perspective on the altitudinal occurrence of alpine treeline. Tree Physiol 23:1101-1112.

Smith WK, CR Brodersen, TE Hancock and DM Johnson. 2004. Integrated plant temperature measurements using heat-sensitive paint and colour image analysis.  Functional Ecology 18, 148-153.

Johnson DM, MJ Germino and WK Smith (2004) Abiotic factors limiting photosynthesis in Abies lasiocarpa and Picea engelmannii seedlings below and above the alpine timberline.  Tree Physiology 24, 377-386.

Smith, WK, TM Vogelmann, C Critchley. 2004. Photosynthetic Adaptation: Chloroplast to Landscape. Springer, New York. 416 pp.

Kelly, R. D., E. R. Hunt, W. A. Reiners, W. K. Smith, and J. M. Welker. 2002. Relationships between daytime carbon dioxide uptake and absorbed photosynthetically active radiation for three    mountain/plains ecosystems. J. Geophys. Res., 107 ( D14), DOI 10.1029/2001JD001181.

Hunt, E.R. Jr., J.T. Fahnestock, R.D. Kelly, J.M. Welker, W.A. Reiners, and W.K. Smith. 2003. Carbon Sequestration from Remotely-Sensed NDVI and Net Ecosystem Exchange;. In Laboratory Spectroscopy to Remotely Sensed Spectra of Terrestrial Ecosystems (R. S. Muttiah, ed.) Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, NetherlandsHardbound, ISBN 1-4020-0753-1, October, 328 pp., Texas Agricultural Experimental Station, Texas A&M University, USA

Hunt,.E. R., R. D. Kelly, W. K. Smith, J. T. Fahnestock, and W. A. Reiners. 2003. Estimation of carbon sequestration by combining remote sensing and net ecosystem exchange data for northen mixed-grass prairie and sagebrush-steppe ecosystems. Environmental Management.

Hill, JP, CJ Willson, and WK Smith. 2004. Morphotypic differentiation in a homogeneous sagebrush steppe generates islands of reproduction. Plant Ecology 36:467-479.

Hunt ER Jr., RD Kelly, WK Smith, JT Fahnestock, JM Welker (2004) Estimation of Carbon sequestration by combining remote sensing and net ecosystem exchange data for northern mixed-grass prairie and sagebrush-steppe ecosystems.  Environmental Management Online DOI: 10.1007/s00267-003-9151-0.

Hasselquist, N.J.  M. Germino, T. McGonigle, and W. K. Smith. 2005.  Variability of Cenococcum colonization and its ecophysiological significance for young conifers at alpine-treeline. New Phytologist 165:867-873.

Abdaladze, O., Akhalkatsi, M., Nakhutsrishvili, G., Smith, W.K. (2005). Some morphological features of Betula litwinowii in the upper tree line of the Central Greater Caucasus.  Proceedings of the Georgian Academy of Sciences,  Biol. Ser. B: 3-11.

Smith WK, CR Brodersen, TE Hancock and DM Johnson (2004) Integrated plant temperature measurements using heat-sensitive paint and color image analysis. Functional Ecology 18, 148-153.

Smith, W.K., T.C. Vogelmann, and C. Critchley. 2004. Chapter 1: Introduction. In PhotosyntheticAdaptation:Chloroplast to Landscape. Springer, New York. 316pp.

Johnson DM, MJ Germino and WK Smith (2004) Abiotic factors limiting photosynthesis in Abies lasiocarpa and Picea engelmannii seedlings below and above the alpine timberline. Tree Physiology 24, 377-386.

Hunt ER Jr., RD Kelly, WK Smith, JT Fahnestock, JM Welker (2004) Estimation of Carbon sequestration by combining remote sensing and net ecosystem exchange data for northern mixed-grass prairie and sagebrush-steppe ecosystems.  Environmental Management Online DOI: 10.1007/s00267-003-9151-0.

Smith, W.K., P.S. Nobel, W.R. Reiners, T.C. Vogelmann, and C. Critchley. 2004. Chapter 11: A Synthesis. In PhotosyntheticAdaptation:Chloroplast to Landscape. Springer, New York. 316pp

Hill, JP, CJ Willson, and WK Smith. (2004). Morphotypic differentiation in a homogeneous sagebrush steppe generates islands of reproduction. Plant Ecology 36:467-479.

Johnson, D.M., Smith, W.K., Vogelmann, T.C., and C.R. Brodersen.  2005.  Leaf architecture and direction of incident light influence mesophyll fluorescence profiles.  American Journal of Botany 92: 1425-1431.

Brodersen, C.R., M.J. Germino, and W.K. Smith. 2005. Photosynthesis during an episodic drought in Abies lasiocarpa and Picea engelmannii across an alpine treeline.  Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research 38:34-41.

Johnson, D.M., W.K. Smith, and M. Silman. 2005. Climate-independent paleoaltimetry using stomatal density in fossil leaves as a proxy for CO2 partial pressure: Comment.  Geology, (Forum, Apr. 18, 2005).

Johnson, D.M., and W.K. Smith.  2005.  Refugial forests of the southern Appalachians: photosynthesis and survival in current-year Abies fraseri seedlings.  Tree Physiology 25: 1379-1387.

Ya-P. He, Yuan-W.Duan, Jian-Q. Liu and W.K.Smith. 2005. Floral closure in response to temperature and pollination in Gentiana straminea Maxim. (Gentianaceae), an alpine perennial in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Plant Systematics and Evolution. 256: 17-33.

Smith, WK., Reinhardt, KA, and DM Johnson. 2006. The Alpine Forest.  In The Encyclopedia of Ecology:, Elsevier, NY.

Johnson, DM and WK Smith. 2006. Low clouds and cloud immersion enhance photosynthesis in understory species of a Southern Appalachian spruce-fir forest (USA).  Amer J Bot. 93: 1625-1632.

Johnson, DM and WK Smith. 2006. Limitations to photosynthetic carbon gain in timberline Abies lasiocarpa seedlings during prolonged drought.  Can J Forest Res, in press.

Akhalkatsi, M, O Abdaladze, G Nakhutsrishvili1, and WK Smith2. 2006. Facilitation of seedling microsites by Rhododendron caucasicum extends the Betula litwinowii alpine treeline (Caucasus Mountains, Georgia).  Arct Antarct and Alpine Res. 38: 481-488.

Germino MJ, Hasselquist NJ, McGonigle TM, Smith WK, Sheridan P.  2006. Colonization of conifer seedling roots by fungal mycelium in an alpine-treeline ecotone: Relationships to microsite, developmental stage, and ecophysiology of seedlings.  Can J Forest Res, in press.

Smith, W.K. and D.M. Johnson. 2008. Biophysical Effects of Altitude on Plant Gas Exchange. In De la Cabrerra E, Smith WK (eds.). Perspectives in Biophysical Plant Ecophysiology,  Univ Calif Press, Los Angeles (in press).

Hughes, NM and WK Smith. 2007. Attenuation of incident light in galax urceolata (diapensiaceae): concerted influence of adaxial and abaxial anthocyanic layers on photoprotection.  Amer J Botany, in press.

Malanson GP, DR Butler, DB Fagre, SJ Walsh, DF Tomback, LD Daniels, LM Resler, WK Smith, DJ Weiss, DL Peterson, AG Bunn, CA Hiemstra, D Liptzin, PS Bourgeron, Z Shen, and CI Millar. 2007. Alpine treelines of western North America: Linking organism-to-landscape dynamics. Physical Geography 28: 378–396.

Broderson C, Germino MJ, Smith WK. 2007. Photosynthesis during an episodic drought in Abies lasiocarpa and Picea engelmannii across an alpine treeline. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research 38:34-41

Germino MJ, Hasselquist NJ, McGonigle TM, Smith WK, Sheridan P.  2007. Colonization of conifer seedling roots by fungal mycelium in an alpine-treeline ecotone: Relationships to microsite, developmental stage, and ecophysiology of seedlings. Can J Forest Res. 36: 901-909.

Hughes, NM and WK Smith. 2007. Attenuation of incident light in Galax urceolata (Diapensiaceae): concerted influence of adaxial and abaxial anthocyanic layers on photoprotection.  Amer J Botany 94:784-790.

Malanson, GP, Butler DR, Fagre DB, Walsh SJ, Tomback DF, Daniels LD, Resler LM, Smith WK, Weiss DJ, Peterson DL, Bunn AG, Hiemstra CA, Liptzin D, Bourgeron PS, Shen Z, and CI Millar. 2007. Alpine treeline of western North America: linking organism-to-landscape dynamics. Physical Geography, in press with 2007 publish date).

Smith, WK. Reinhart, K and D.M. Johnson 2007. The Alpine Forest.  In The Encyclopedia of Ecology: Elsevier, NY.

Smith, W.K. and D.M. Johnson. 2007. Biophysical Effects of Altitude on Plant Gas Exchange. In Biophysical Plant Ecology: Perspectives and Trends. Univ Calif Press, Los Angeles, CA.

Johnson DM and Smith WK. 2007. Cloud immersion alters microclimate, photosynthesis and water relations in Rhododendron catawbiense and Abies fraseri seedlings in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. Tree Physiology 28:385-392.

Smith, WK. 2007. C4 leaf curling — coupling incident light, stomatal and photosynthetic asymmetries (invited commentary). New Phytologist 177: 5-8.

Hughes NM, Smith WK. 2007. Seasonal photosynthesis and anthocyanin production in ten broadleaf evergreen species. Functional Plant Biology 34: 1072-1079.

Johnson, DM and WK Smith. 2007. Limitations to photosynthetic carbon gain in timberline Abies lasiocarpa seedlings during prolonged drought.  Can J For Res,   37: 568-579.

Hughes, N. M. and W. K. Smith. 2007. Attenuation of incident light in Galax urceolata (Diapensiaceae): Concerted influence of adaxial and abaxial anthocyanic layers on photoprotection. Amer J Botany 95:784-790.

Smith, W. K., D.M. Johnson and K.A. Reinhart. 2007. Alpine Forests. In Encyclopedia of Ecology. Elsevier Press, NY.

Hughes, N. M., C. B. Morely and W. K. Smith. 2007. Coordination of anthocyanin decline and photosynthetic maturation in juvenile leaves of three deciduous tree species. New Phytologist 175: 675-685.

Reinhardt, K and WK Smith 2007. Leaf gas exchange of understory spruce-fir saplings in relict cloud forests, southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. Tree Physiology 28:113–122.

Reinhardt K, Smith WK. 2008. Cloud immersion alters microclimate, photosynthesis, and water relations in Rhododendron catawbiense and Abies fraseri seedlings in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. Tree Physiology 28: 385-393.

Smith WK, Hughes NM. 2008. Progress in understanding plant form and photosynthesis. Castanea 74: 1-26 (invited review).

Johnson, D. M. and W. K. Smith. 2008. Cloud immersion alters microclimate, photosynthesis and water relations in Rhododendron and Abies seedlings, southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. Tree Physiol. 28: 385-392.

Smith, W.K. and D.M. Johnson. 2008. Biophysical effects of altitude on plant gas exchange. In Biophysical Plant Ecology: Perspectives and Trends. Eds. E. De la Barrera and W. K. Smith. UNAD, Lulu Publishing, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Barrera, E. D. and W. K. Smith (Eds.) 2008. Biophysical Plant Ecology: Perspectives and Trends. UNAD, Lulu Publishing, San Francisco, CA, USA

Reinhardt, K. and W. K. Smith. 2008. Leaf gas exchange of understory spruce-fir saplings in relict forests, southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. Tree Physiol. 28:113-122.

Smith, WK. 2008. C4 leaf curling—coupling incident light, stomatal and photosynthetic asymmetries. New Phytol. 177: 5-8.

Johnson, DM and WK Smith. 2008. Cloud immersion alters microclimate, photosynthesis and water relations in Rhododendron catabiense and Abies fraseri seedlings in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. Tree Physiol. 28: 385-392.

Reinhardt, K. and W. K. Smith. 2008. Leaf gas exchange of understory spruce-fir saplings in relict cloud forests, southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. Tree Physiol. 28: 113-122.

Reinhardt, K. and W. K. Smith. 2008. Impacts of cloud immersion on microclimate, photosynthesis and water relations of Abies fraseri (Pursh.) Poiret in a temperate mountain cloud forest. Oecologia 158:229-238.

Smith, W. K., M. J. Germino, D. M. Johnson and K. Reinhardt. 2008. Progress in understanding alpine treeline altitudes:  a bellwether of climate change.  Botanical Review 75: 163-190.

Malanson et al.  (14 co-authors). 2007. Alpine treelines of western North America: Linking organism-to-landscape dynamics. Physical Geography 28: 378-396.

Hughes, N. M. and W. K. Smith. 2007. Seasonal photosynthesis and anthocyanin production in 10 broadleaf evergreen species. Funct Pl Biol 34: 1072-1079.

Hughes, N. M., T. C. Vogelmann and W. K. Smith. 2007. Optical effects of abaxial anthocyanin on absorption of red wavelengths by understory species: revisiting the backscatter hypothesis. J Exp Botany. 59: 3435-3442.

Johnson, DM and WK Smith. 2007. Limitations to photosynthetic carbon gain in timberline Abies lasiocarpa seedlings during prolonged drought.  Can J For Res, 37: 568-579.

Smith, W. K., D.M. Johnson and K.A. Reinhart. 2007. Alpine Forests. In Encyclopedia of Ecology. Elsevier Press, NY.

Barrera, E. D. and W. K. Smith (Eds.) 2008. Biophysical Plant Ecology: Perspectives and Trends. UNAD, Lulu Publishing, San Francisco, CA, USA

Johnson, D. M. and W. K. Smith. 2008. Cloud immersion alters microclimate, photosynthesis and water relations in Rhododendron and Abies seedlings, southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. Tree Physiol. 28: 385-392.

Smith, WK. 2008. C4 leaf curling—coupling incident light, stomatal and photosynthetic asymmetries. New Phytol. 177: 5-8.

Johnson, DM and WK Smith. 2008. Cloud immersion alters microclimate, photosynthesis and water relations in Rhododendron catabiense and Abies fraseri seedlings in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. Tree Physiol. 28: 385-392.          

Reinhardt, K. and W. K. Smith. 2008. Leaf gas exchange of understory spruce-fir saplings in relict cloud forests, southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. Tree Physiol. 28: 113-122.

Reinhardt, K. and W. K. Smith. 2008. Impacts of cloud immersion on microclimate, photosynthesis and water relations of Abies fraseri (Pursh.) Poiret in a temperate mountain cloud forest. Oecologia 158: 229-238..

Smith, W.K. and D.M. Johnson. 2008. Biophysical effects of altitude on plant gas exchange. In Biophysical Plant Ecology: Perspectives and Trends. Eds. E. De la Barrera and W. K. Smith.

Smith, W. K., M. J. Germino, D. M. Johnson and K. Reinhardt. 2009. Progress in understanding alpine treeline altitudes: a bellwether of climate change. Botanical Review

Smith, W. K. and N. M.Hughes. 2009. Progress in coupling plant form and function, Castanea 74:1-26 (invited review).

Smith, W.K. and D.M. Johnson. 2009. Biophysical effects of altitude on plant gas exchange. In Perspectives in Biophysical Plant Ecophysiology.  Eds. E. De la Barrera and W. K. Smith. UNAD, Lulu Publishing, San Francisco, CA, USA

Smith, WK. 2009. Book Review: Manual of Leaf Architecture, Beth Ellis, et al 2009. Quarterly Review Of Biology 84: 418-19.

Hughes, NM, K Reinhardt, TS Feild, AR Gerardi, and WK Smith. 2010. Drought stress and winter anthocyanin production are not associated in angiosperm evergreen species. J Experimental Botany 61:1699-1709.

Smith, W. K. and N. M.Hughes. 2009. Progress in coupling plant form and function, Castanea 74:1-26 (invited review paper).

Reinhardt, K and WK Smith. 2009. Photosynthetic gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence under direct versus diffuse light in a needle-leaf conifer tree (Picea pungens) and broadleaf shrub (Rhododendron ponticum). Botany, in press

Barrera, E. D. and W. K. Smith (Eds.) 2009. Perspectives in Biophysical Plant Ecophysiology. UNAD, Lulu Publishing, San Francisco, CA, USA

Smith and Johnson chapter

Smith, W. K., M. J. Germino, D. M. Johnson and K. Reinhardt. 2009. The altitude of alpine treeline: a bellwether of climate change effects. Botanical Review 75: 163-190. DOI 10.1007/s12229-009-9030-3.

Reinhardt, K, DM Johnson, and WK Smith. 2009. Age-class differences in shoot photosynthesis and water relations of Fraser fir (Abies fraseri), southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. Canadian J Forest Research 39: 1-5.

Hughes, NM, WK Smith and KS Gould. 2010. Red (anthocyanic) leaf margins in Veronica spp. do not correspond to increased phenolic content. Annals of Botany 105:647-654.

Williams, AM, RA Feagin, WK Smith and NL Jackson 2009. Lessons learned from Hurricane Ike: Perspectives of the Coastal Barrier Island Network (CBIN). Shore & Beach 77: 71-76.

Feagin, R.A., Smith, W.K., Psuty, N.P., Young, D.R., Martínez, M.L., Carter, G.A., Lucas, K.L., Gibeaut, J.C., Gemma, J.N., & Koske, R.E. Barrier islands: Coupling anthropogenic stability with ecological sustainability. Journal of Coastal Research, in press.

Williams, AM, RA Feagin, WK Smith, NL Jackson. Ecosystem impacts of Hurricane Ike on Galveston Island and Bolivar Peninsula: Perspective of the Coastal Barrier Island Network (CBIN). Shore & Beach 77:1-8.

Feagin, R.A., Smith, W.K., Psuty, N.P., Young, D.R., Martínez, M.L., Carter, G.A., Lucas, K.L., Gibeaut, J.C., Gemma, J.N., & Koske, R.E. 2010. Barrier islands: Coupling anthropogenic stability with ecological sustainability. Journal of Coastal Research 26(6): 987-992.

Reinhardt, K, WK Smith and GC Carter. 2010. Clouds and cloud immersion alter photosynthetic light quality in a temperate mountain cloud forest.  Botany 88:462-470.

Williams, AM, RA Feagin, WK Smith, NL Jackson. 2011.Ecosystem impacts of Hurricane Ike on Galveston Island and Bolivar Peninsula: Perspective of the Coastal Barrier Island Network (CBIN). Shore & Beach 77:1-8.

Hughes NM, Reinhardt K, Gierardi A, Feild TS, and WK Smith. 2011. Association between winter anthocyanin production and drought stress in angiosperm evergreen species. Journal of Experimental Botany 61(6):1699-1709.

Joesting H, Sprague M and WK Smith. 2011. Seasonal and diurnal leaf orientation, bifacial sunlight incidence, and leaf structure in the sand dune herb Hydrocotyle bonariensis. Envir Experiment Botany 75: 195-203.

Hughes, NM, KO Burkey, J Cavender-Bares, WK Smith. 2012. Xanthophyll cycle pigment and antioxidant profiles of winter-red (anthocyanic) and winter-green (acyanic) angiosperm evergreen species J. Exp. Bot. 63 (5): 1895-1905. doi: 10.1093/jxb/err362

Reed, JR, WK Smith. 2012. Stomatal frequency, distribution, and needle hydrophobicity in cloud forest spruce and fir, southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. Review of Undergraduate Research, 1045: 1:11.

Smith, WK. 2012. Review of Alpine Treelines: functional ecology of the global high elevation tree limits by Ch Koerner. Ecology, in press.

Smith, WK. 2012.Four articles for Encyclopedia of Sustainability, Berkshire Scientific Publishing, Great Barrington, MA

Smith, WK and ZC Berry. 2013. Sunflecks? Tree Physiology, in press.

Berry, ZC and WK Smith. 2012. Cloud pattern and water relations in Picea rubens and Abies fraseri, southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 162:27-34.

White JC and WK Smith. 2013. Water sources in riparian trees of the southern Appalachian foothills, USA: A preliminary study with stable isotope analysis. Riparian Ecology and Conservation 1:46-52. DOI: 10.2478/remc-2013-0006

Berry, ZC, NM Hughes, WK Smith. 2013. Cloud immersion: an important water source for spruce and fir saplings in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Oecologia (published on-line Nov 26, 2013). DOI 10.1007/s00442-013-2770-0

Sanchez A,, NM Hughes, WK Smith. 2013.  Effects of cloud regime on daily and seasonal microclimate, photosynthesis and water relations in the alpine species, Caltha leptosepala and Arnica parryi, Medicine Bow Mountains, southeastern Wyoming, USA.

Smith WK, ZC Berry. 2013. Sunflecks? Tree Physiology, 33: 233-237. (Invited review)

Berry ZC, JC White, and WK Smith. 2013. Foliar uptake, carbon fluxes, and water status are affected by the timing of daily fog in saplings from a threatened cloud forest. Plant, Cell, & Environment, in review.

Jackson, NL, KF Nordstrom, RA Feagin, WK Smith. 2013. Coastal geomorphology and restoration.  Geomorphology 199: 1-7. (Lead article, as well as an invited, organizing editor for this volume)

Smith WK. 2013. A unified paradigm for the climatic elevations of global treelines. Ecology 94:767-778. (invited book review)

Berry, ZC, WK Smith. 2013. Ecophysiological importance of cloud immersion in a relic spruce-fir forest at elevational limits, southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. Oecologia 173: 637-648. DOI  10.1007/s00442-013-2653-4

Sanchez A, JM. Posada, WK Smith. 2013. Dynamic cloud regimes, incident sunlight, and leaf temperatures in Espeletia grandiflora and Chusquea tessellata, two representative species of the Andean Páramo, Colombia. Artic, Antarctic, & Alpine, in press.

Sanchez A, NM Hughes, WK Smith. 2013. Water-use efficiency declines during autumn leaf senescence in three deciduous tree species, North Carolina piedmont, USA. International Journal of Plant Biology 4: 16-23..

Berry ZC, WK Smith. 2013. Experimental cloud immersion and foliar water uptake in saplings of Abies fraseri and Picea rubens. Trees: Structure and Function 1-9 (DOI) 10.1007/s00468-013-0934-5

Sanchez A, WK Smith. 2013. Plant functional traits: Perspectives from a quantitative literature survey. Current Trends in Ecology 3: 25-51.  (Invited review)

Smith WK. 2013. A unified paradigm for the climatic elevations of global treelines. Ecology 94:777-778 (review)

Reed JE, WK Smith. 2013. Stomatal frequency, distribution, and needle hydrophobicity in cloud forest spruce and fir, southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. Review of Undergraduate Research in Agricultural and Life Sciences (RURALS) 7:1-9. (Jennifer Reed, WFU undergraduate).

Wieser G, FK Holtmeier, WK Smith. 2014. Treelines in a changing global environment. Forest Ecology in a Climate-change Future. Springer, in press (Invited chapter, delayed from a promised 2012 publication date)

Carmichael,MJ, ES Bernhardt, SL Bräuer, and WK Smith. 2014. Conduits, stimulants and synthesizers: the role of vegetation in methane flux to the atmosphere. Biogeochemistry http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10533-014-9974-1

White JC and WK Smith. 2013. Water sources in riparian trees of the southern Appalachian foothills, USA: A preliminary study with stable isotope analysis. Riparian Ecology and Conservation 1:46-52. DOI: 10.2478/remc-2013-0006

Berry, ZC, NM Hughes, WK Smith. 2013. Cloud immersion: an important water source for spruce and fir saplings in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Oecologia (published on-line Nov 26, 2013). DOI 10.1007/s00442-013-2770-0

Sanchez A,, NM Hughes, WK Smith. 2013.  Effects of cloud regime on daily and seasonal microclimate, photosynthesis and water relations in the alpine species, Caltha leptosepala and Arnica parryi, Medicine Bow Mountains, southeastern Wyoming, USA.

Smith WK, ZC Berry. 2013. Sunflecks? Tree Physiology, 33: 233-237. (Invited review)

Berry ZC, JC White, and WK Smith. 2013. Foliar uptake, carbon fluxes, and water status are affected by the timing of daily fog in saplings from a threatened cloud forest. Plant, Cell, & Environment, in review.

Jackson, NL, KF Nordstrom, RA Feagin, WK Smith. 2013. Coastal geomorphology and restoration.  Geomorphology 199: 1-7. (Lead article, as well as an invited, organizing editor for this volume)

Smith WK. 2013. A unified paradigm for the climatic elevations of global treelines. Ecology 94:767-778. (invited book review)

Berry, ZC, WK Smith. 2013. Ecophysiological importance of cloud immersion in a relic spruce-fir forest at elevational limits, southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. Oecologia 173: 637-648. DOI  10.1007/s00442-013-2653-4

Sanchez A, JM. Posada, WK Smith. 2013. Dynamic cloud regimes, incident sunlight, and leaf temperatures in Espeletia grandiflora and Chusquea tessellata, two representative species of the Andean Páramo, Colombia. Artic, Antarctic, & Alpine, in press.

Sanchez A, NM Hughes, WK Smith. 2013. Water-use efficiency declines during autumn leaf senescence in three deciduous tree species, North Carolina piedmont, USA. International Journal of Plant Biology 4: 16-23..

Berry ZC, WK Smith. 2013. Experimental cloud immersion and foliar water uptake in saplings of Abies fraseri and Picea rubens. Trees: Structure and Function 1-9 (DOI) 10.1007/s00468-013-0934-5

Sanchez A, WK Smith. 2013. Plant functional traits: Perspectives from a quantitative literature survey. Current Trends in Ecology 3: 25-51.  (Invited review)

Smith WK. A unified paradigm for the climatic elevations of global treelines. Ecology 94:767-778.

Reed JE, WK Smith. 2013. Stomatal frequency, distribution, and needle hydrophobicity in cloud forest spruce and fir, southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. Review of Undergraduate Research in Agricultural and Life Sciences (RURALS) 7:1-9. (Jennifer Reed, WFU undergraduate).

Wieser G, FK Holtmeier, WK Smith. 2012. Treelines in a changing global environment. Forest Ecology in a Climate-change Future. Springer, in press (Invited chapter, delayed from a promised 2012 publication date)

Carmichael,MJ, ES Bernhardt, SL Bräuer, and WK Smith. 2013. Conduits, stimulants and synthesizers: the role of vegetation in methane flux to the atmosphere. Biogeochemistry http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10533-014-9974-1

                                                                                    

 

RESEARCH  GRANTS  FUNDED  OR  PENDING

Smith, W.K.  1979.  Water and photosynthetic relations of two subalpine understory congeners.  Population Biology and Physiological Ecology Program, National Science Foundation, September 1, 1979, DEB-7923010 ($68,396, 2 yrs.)

Christensen, M., T.S. Moore, Jr. and W.K. Smith.  1979.  Effects of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae on plant hormone levels, water relations, and photosynthesis.  Ecology Panel, National Science Foundation, January 1, 1979, DEB-7825222 ($44,700, 2 yrs.)

Smith, W.K.  1979.  Seedling establishment in three subspecies of Artemesia.  U.S.Park Service – University of Wyoming Research Foundation, January 1, 1980, ($19,340 , 2 yrs.)

Smith, W.K.  1980.  Physiological ecology of plant succession and re-establishment in subalpine communities of the Rocky Mountains of Wyoming. U.S. Park Service -University of Wyoming Research Foundation, January 1, 1980, ($19,086, 2 yrs.)

Smith, W.K. 1982.  Physiological adaptation and reproductive effort in subalpine understory plants of the Rocky Mountains.  Population Biology/Physiological Ecology Program, Biotic Systems and Resources, NSF,DEB-8200742 ($109,722/2 yr.)

Smith, W.K.  1984.  Transpirational water loss from phreatophytic, streamside vegetation in Wyoming.  Wyoming Water Research Center, University of Wyoming, Laramie.  ($166,450, 3 yrs.)

Delaney, R. and W.K. Smith.  1984.  Water-use efficiency in leaf color variants of alfalfa.  USDA, HATCH funds for Ph.D. student, USDA-8441171, ($38,670, 3 yrs.).

Vogelmann, T.C. and W.K. Smith.  1986.  Light regimes inside leaves:  relationship to leaf anatomy and morphology.  USDA Competitive Grants, Photosynthesis Panel, USDA-86-CRCR-1-2048 ($55,690, 2yrs.).

Vogelmann, T.C., W.K. Smith and R. Middaugh.  1986.  Development of fiber optic micro-sensors for measuring light and biochemical parameters within leaves. Biological Instrumentation Program, National Science Foundation, DMB-8606824 ($161,657, 3 yrs.).

Vogelmann, T.C. and W.K. Smith.  1986.  Ecophysiological adaptations related to the light gradient inside leaves.  EPSCoR Program for Land Grant Universities, National Science Foundation, R11-8610680 ($154,320, 3 yrs.)

Smith, W.K.  1986.  Effects of Acid Mist on leaf cuticles:  Influence on water/carbon relations and mortality in high elevation conifers.  USDA Competitive Grants Program, Environmental Stress, 86-CRCR-1-2061 ($139,620, 2 yrs.).

Smith, W.K. and A.K. Knapp.  1987.  Coupling of photosynthetic and transpirational responses during sun/shade transitions.  Population Biology and Physiological Ecology Program, Biological Resources Section, National Science Foundation, BSR-8700690 ($110,816, 2 yrs.).

DeLucia, E.H. and W.K. Smith.  1987.  Environmental factors limiting photosynthesis in subalpine conifers of the Central Rocky Mountains.  USDA Competitive Grants Program, Forest Biology, 87-FSTY-9-0261 ($179,416, 3 yrs.).

Smith, W.K.  1987.  Physiological processes in subalpine tree species.  USDA, U.S.  Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Experiment Station, Cooperative Agreement No. 27-c7-417 ($43,500, 2yrs. ).

Vogelmann, T.C. and W.K. Smith.  1988.  Importance of epidermal lens cells and mesophyll anatomy to internal light gradients and photosynthesis of leaves. Physiological Processes Program, Cellular Biosciences Division, National Science Foundation, DCB-8908328 ($173,000, 2 yrs.).

Smith, W.K. and. A.K, Knapp. 1989.  Coupling of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance during rapid environmental changes.  Population Biology and Physiological Ecology Program, Biotic Systems/Resources Division, National Science Foundation, BSR-8920881 ($93,000, 2 yrs.)

Smith, W.K.  1989.  Ecophysiological significance of leaf surface wetness.  Population Biology and Physiological Ecology Program, Biological Systems/Resources Division National Science Foundation, BSR-8919228 ($70,000, 2 yrs.)

Nishio, J., W.K. Smith and T.M. Vogelmann.  1990.  A new glasshouse facility for the Department of Botany, University of Wyoming.  NSF Facilities Improvement Program, RFO 9021761 ($1.6 million).

Smith, W.K. and T.M. Hinkley.  1991.  Physiological ecology of coniferous forests :A modern synthesis. Jackson Hole, Wyoming, Sept. 16-19, 1991.  Funded partially by the DOE, U.S. Forest Service, NASA, U.S. Park Service, Nat. Paper Council for Stream and Air Improvement, and the U.S. EPA for a total of $44,400.

Smith, W.K.  1991.  Direct coupling of atmospheric warming to plant ecology:  Nocturnal radiation exchange, frost occurrence, and plant distribution patterns.  NASA Innovative Research Program, IRP 91-181($ 272,000 / 3 yrs.)

Vogelmann, T.C. and W.K. Smith.  1991.  Leaf structural properties that influence photosynthesis: Interactions between gradients of light, CO2, and photosynthetic capacity.  Physiological Processes Program, Biotic Systems and Resources, NSF.  $256,908/3 yrs.

Smith, W.K. and D.T. Bell.  1992.  A model of leaf structure/function: photosynthetic symmetry in plant leaves.  International Studies Program, The National Science Foundation ($34,740 for six months, Dec. 1 to June 1, 1992-3).

Smith, W.K.  1993.  Early detection and monitoring of atmospheric warming.  Committee on Climate Change, DOE, Batelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories (34,500/ 1 yr.)

Smith, W.K., T.M. Vogelmann, and G.C. Carter.  1994.  Remote detection of plant stress using narrow‑band spectroradiometry.  NASA‑EPSCOR. ($75,000/ 1 yr.)

Smith, W.K. and T.C. Vogelmann. 1994-5. Remote sensing of plant stress, NASA-EPSCOR, $85,000/1yr

Vogelmann, T.C. and W.K. Smith. Leaf structural properties that influence photosynthesis: Interactions       between gradients of light, C02, and photosynthetic capacity. NSF Integrative Plant Biology, $85,000.

Jenkins, R.A., Vogelmann, T.C. Smith, W.K. and five other co-PIs, Acquisition of a university confocal laser               scanning microscope system, Instrumentation and Facilities Improvement Program, NSF, $128,710, 1995‑96.

Del Rio, C.M., W. K. Smith, 5 Co-PI’s 1996. A CHNS Analyzer for the University of Wyoming. NSF Instrumentation Improvement Program, $65,000.

Smith, W.K. 1992-5.  Radiational frost effects on growth season length in the subalpine: A direct coupling between plant ecology and atmospheric warming. NASA Innovative Grants Program, $246,000/ 3 yrs.

Smith, W.K.  1996. Plant responses to multiple stress in the alpine timberline ecotone: Low temperature photoinhibition and global climate change. NSF, Evolutionary and Ecological Physiology Program.  $225,000/2 yrs.

Vogelmann, TC and WK Smith. 1997. The snow alga Clamydamona nivalis : photosynthesis under extremes of high light, UV-B radiation, and low temperature.  Life In Extreme Environments (LEXEN) Program, NSF, 225,015/3 yrs (IBN-9714268).

Smith, WK and TC Vogelmann.  1997.  Intergrating multiple stress factors in the alpine timberline ecotone: Direct linkage between adaptive biology and global change.  Ecological and Evolutionary Physiology Program, NSF, 135,000/2 yrs (IBN-9741500)

Smith, WK, RD Kelly, JM Welker, ER Hunt, WA Reiners.  1997.  Quantification of carbon sources and sinks for northern plains and mountain landscapes using simultaneous aircraft, tower, and leaf measurements of CO2 and H2O vapor flux, and stable isotopes.  Joint Program on Terrestrial Ecology and Global Change (TECO), NSF, 1.2 million/3 yrs (IBN-9727796).

JM Welker. Smith, WK and 4 other Co’PI’s. 1998.  Acqusition of a stable isotope facility to study terrestrial processes and their interaction with climate and the environment.  Major Research Instrumentation Program, National Science Foundation. 678,708/ 3 yrs.

Smith, WK and TC Vogelmann. 2001. Alpine Treeline Stability in a Changing Global Environment: Mechanisms of Conifer Tree Seedling Establishment.  Evolutionary and Ecological Physiology Program, National Science Foundation. Funded for $305,401/3 yrs.

Smith, WK, TC Vogelmann, and C Critchley. 2001. Workshop/Edited Book Proposal: Scaling Photosynthesis From The Chloroplast To The Landscape.  12th International Congress On Photosynthesis, Brisbane, Australia, August 18-22, 2001  Proposal submitted to NSF, USDA, and DOE requesting partial funding from each for a total of $35,000 (All three grants funded).

Smith, W. K. and Georgi Nakhutsrishvili.  2002. Mechanisms of Upper Treeline Stability: Reproductive Effort, Seed Germination, and Seedling Survival in Betula litwinowii of the Caucasian Mountains, Georgia (FSU)., George Institute of Botany, Georgia Academy of Science and Wake Forest University. International Science Cooperative Program, National Science Foundation.($35,000/yr for 3 yrs)

Smith, WK. 2002. Alpine treeline stability in a changing global environment. Ecology and Evolutionary Physiology program, NSF. $258.000/3 years.

Smith, WK and TC Vogelmann. 2001. Alpine Treeline Stability in a Changing Global Environment: Mechanisms of Conifer Tree Seedling Establishment.  Evolutionary and Ecological Physiology, National Science Foundation.  $305,401/3 yrs.

Smith, WK, TC Vogelmann, and C Critchley. 2001. Workshop/Edited Book Proposal: Scaling Photosynthesis From The Chloroplast To The Landscape.  12th International Congress On Photosynthesis, Brisbane, Australia, August 18-22, 2001.  NSF, USDA, and DOE partial funding from each for a total of $35,000.

Smith, W. K. and Georgi Nakhutsrishvili.  2002. Mechanisms of Upper Treeline Stability: Reproductive Effort, Seed Germination, and Seedling Survival in Betula litwinowii of the Caucasian Mountains, Georgia (FSU)., George Institute of Botany, Georgia Academy of Science and Wake Forest University. International Science Cooperative Program, National Science Foundation. (128,000/3 yrs.)

Smith, WK. 2004. Episodic versus daily stress effects on plant resource acquisition, survival, and fitness at the land-sea interface. NC Sea Grant Program, $5,792/one year.

Smith, WK. 2004. Mechanisms of Upper Treeline Stability. NSF, Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program, $5,679/one year (supplement).

Smith, WK. 2005. Alpine Treeline stability in a changing global environment: Mechanisms of conifer tree seedling establishment. Physiological and Structural Systems, NSF, 287,000/3 yrs

Smith, W.K. 2005. Research Experiences for K-12 Teachers Program (RET supplement), Proprosal #0513604 funded for $9,904/year.

Smith, W. K. 2004. Ecological facilitation by Rhododendron caucasicum extends the Betula litwinowii alpine treeline, Caucasus Mountains of Georgia. George Institute of Botany, Georgia Academy of Science and Wake Forest University, US Civilian Research and Development Foundation (CRDF) and (GRDF), funded for $42,000/year.

Smith, WK. 2004-5, Stabilization of Barrier Islands and the Role of Primary Dune Colonizers. NC Sea Grant, NOAA (13,788/ 1yr).

McCauley, A.K. 2005 (co-PI with others). Addition of a steomicroscope to the Department of Biology, Wake Forest University, Microscopy Laboratory.  NSF, Instrumentation and Major Equipment Program. $74,540.

Smith, W. K. 2005. Research Experiences for K-12 Teachers, National Science Foundation $9,874/yr (funded)

Smith, W. K. 2005.NSF, Partnerships for International Research and Education, Office of International Science and Engineering, Doctoral Dissertation Enhancement Program, $30,000/2 yrs.

Smith, WK. 2005. Episodic versus daily stress effects on plant resource acquisition, survival,and fitness at the land-sea interface. NC Sea Grant Program, funded for $4,792/one year.

Smith, WK. 2006-2008. Sustaining Relic Spruce-fir Forests of the Southern Appalachian Mountains.  Hewlett Foundation and National Commission on Energy Policy, Washington, DC. $50,000/2 yrs.

Smith WK, Feagin R, Jackson NL. 2007-2012. Sustaining barrier island ecosystems under global change, Coastal Barrier Island network. NSF, Research Coordination Networks, $477,000 / 5 yrs.

Jackson, NL, Feagin, RL, and WK Smith. 44th Symposium on Coastal Geoscience, 2013. Binghamton, NJ, USA.

 

(not listed:  22 smaller grants totaling $ 161,811, plus 14 additional NSF grants supporting undergraduate and high school teachers [Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) and Research Experiences for Teachers (RET) Program, NSF].

 

PARTIALLY-REFEREED PUBLICATIONS

Smith, WK, JR Foster and DH Knight.  1986. Transpirational water loss from streamside vegetation in Wyoming: High elevation source streams and alluvial/irrigation channels of valleys. Project #5-38679, Wyoming Water Research Center, Laramie, WY. Pp 1-12.

Carter, GA, JL Hadley, WK Smith and DH Knight. 1983. Summer water relations of Abies lasiocarpa, Picea engelmannii, and Pinus contorta at higher and lower elevations in southeastern Wyoming. Wyoming Water Research Center, Report A-035-WYO US Dept Interior. Pp 1-20.

 

PUBLISHED  BOOK  REVIEWS                         

Review of Physiological and Environmental Plant Physiology by P.S. Nobel, Academic Press, 635 pp.  Bulletin of the American Botanical Society, November, 1991.

 

Smith WK. 2013. A unified paradigm for the climatic elevations of global treelines. Ecology 94:767-778. (invited book review)

 

                          

NONSCIENTIFIC  PUBLICATIONS

Smith, W.K.  1979.  Flora of a parched land.  Wyoming Wildlife Magazine, January,  Wyming Game and Fish Commission, pp. 28-32.

 

(twelve other short articles for various newspapers or periodicals ( 1981-present) regarding plant adaptations to harsh and extreme environments)

 

INVITED  SEMINARS  AND  PRESENTATIONS           

  1. Plant transpiration and photosynthesis at high elevations. Interdepartmental Seminar Series, Department of Botany, University of Chicago .
  2. Water and photosynthetic relations of understory plants in the Rocky Mountains of Wyoming. Biology Departmental Seminar, Department of Biology, Harvard University, November 27, 1979.
  3. Water stress and photosynthesis under variable light regimes in the subalpine understory. Department of Biology, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA
  4. Phenotypic plasticity and water use efficiency in understory plants of the Rocky Mountains. Guest Speaker, Annual Meetings of the Society of Plant Physiologists, University of Hawaii, May 6, 1983.
  5. Environmental factors limiting summer leaf conductance patterns in Rocky Mountain conifers. Invited paper presented to the IUFRO meetings (Subalpine Workshop:  Management and Tending of Subalpine Forests) in Zurich, Switzerland, September 2-12, 1984.
  6. Ecophysiological adaptations enhancing carbon gain and water conservation in alpine and subalpine plants. Presented October 10, 1986, to the Department of Botany, Colorado State University.
  7. Ecophysiological adaptations enhancing carbon gain and water conservation in alpine and subalpine plants. Department of Botany, University of Georgia, Athens.
  8. Stomatal and photosynthetic responses to rapid environmental changes in alpine/subalpine habitats. Presented June 29, 1987 to the Department of Biology, University of Pittsburgh, PA.
  9. Non-steady state responses in plants to rapid environmental changes. Presented (December 27, 1987 to the Desert Research Institute, University of Nevada, Reno.
  10. Environmental constraints on carbon gain in alpine/subalpine plants. Presented May 14, 1989, Ecological Seminar Series, Department of Population and Organism Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO.  May 14, 1989.
  11. Light and canopy interactions: Effects on carbon gain in alpine and subalpine plants.  Ecosystems Northwest Seminar Program: Canopy Processes, University of Washington, Seattle, Nov. 20, 1991.
  12. Leaf structural adaptations for enhanced CO2exchange. Department of Botany, University of Western Australia,
  13. Scaling light interception efficiency for photosynthesis from the leaf interior to the canopy.  Plant and Soil sciences Department, University of Western Australia, WA (also given in New Zealand, University of Canterbury, Christchurch; and one in own department, UW)
  14. Environmental limitations to photosynthesis in the alpine/subalpine: Implications of global climate change. Division of Forest Resources, CSIRO, Perth, Western Australia.
  15. Scaling light and temperature effects on conifer photosynthesis from the leaf to the canopy. Ministry of Forestry, Cantebury University, Christchurch, New Zealand.
  16. Radiational frosts and climate change. Department of Biology, University of Maryland.
  17. Limitations to photosynthesis due to radiational frosts and dewfall, high irradiance, and UV-B exposure in high elevation species. Department of Plant Sciences, University of Illinois.
  18. Low temperature photoinhibition in alpine plants: linkages to global climate change. Department of Biology, University of Nevada at Las Vegas.
  19. Adaptation to extreme environments: Form versus physiology. Department of Biology, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff.
  20. Adaptation to multiple stress factors in plants: Scaling from the cell to the canopy. Department of Biology, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem.
  21. Physiological Ecology: a science for studying organisms or ecosystems. Invited speaker (three total) for Perspectives in Biological Sciences Symposium, Dept. Biology, Wake Forest University.
  22. Plant Adaptations to extreme environments from the cell to the canopy. Invited speaker (three invited speakers) for Perspectives in Biological Sciences Symposium, Dept. Biology, Wake Forest University.
  23. Low temperature as an ecological factor and implications for global climate change. Workshop: “The Impact of Global Warming on the Frequency and Intensity of Climatic Extremes”, Aspen Institute for Global Change, Aspen, CO.
  24. Scaling photosynthetic adaptations in form and function from the leaf to the landscape. Department of Biology, Duke University. Topics in Ecology Seminar Program.

Photosynthetic adaptations from inside the leaf to the ecosystem.  Graduate Program in Ecology Seminar Series, Duke University, Durham, NC.

  1. Plenary Speaker, Interactive effects of microsite, plant form, and photosynthetic physiology to low temperature photoinhibition In alpiune plants., Third Conference on the Biochemistry, Physiology, Ecology, and Population Biology of Artic and Alpine Plants, Villar d’Arene- Hautes-Alpine, Grenoble, France. Aug. 31- Sept 3.
  2. Western Carolina University, Dept of Biology
  3. Department of Plant Science, University of Illinois, Urbana.
  4. Methodist College,
  5. Appalachian State University, NC
  6. NC Baptist College, NC
  7. Brevard College, NV
  8. Plenary Speaker, 16th Annual Forestry Science Workshop, Washington State University, Pullmann, WA, June 18-2
  9. Virginia Commonwealth University (Inauguration Speaker for new Biol. Sciences Bldg Dedication)
  10. Merging paleobotanical and ecophysiological approaches for understanding evolution, Ecological Society of America meetings, July4-10, University of Arizona, Tucson.
  11. Jones Ecological Center, GA
  12. Brown University, RI
  13. Dept Biology, Appl State Univ, Boone. NC
  14. Georgia Institute of Botany, Tibilisi, Republic of Georgia (FSU).
  15. Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science in Japan, Hakaido University (3 seminars)
  16. Climate Change Symposium, 13th International Photosynthesis Congress, Montreal Canada. Sept. 2004
  17. Dept of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Idaho State Univ.
  18. Symposium on Treeline Ecology, USGS and US Forest Service, Glacier, MT
  19. North Carolina State University, Dept of Botany
  20. Symposium on Sea Level Rise, Texas A&M Univ
  21. Workshop on Climate Change, Hewlett Foundation/Nat Commission on Energy Policy, Washington, DC
  22. Invited speaker, Department of Plant Sciences, Univ Vermont
  23. UNC Charlotte, Dept of Biology Seminar Series
  24. Bennet College, Winston-Salem, NC

 

  1. Piedmont Club of NC

2009 Lenoir-Rhyne College, Dept of Bology

  1. Department of Biology, Idaho State University

(11 various interviews for television and radio stations regarding various topics such as why leaves change color in the fall or the fate of barrier island ecosystems in a warming climate.

 

WORKSHOPS, PANELS, and SYMPOSIA

Smith, W.K. and B.F. Chabot.  1981.  Department of Botany, University of Wyoming and Section of Ecology and Systematics, Cornell University.  Co-sponsors, “Ecology of Forest Understory Species” sponsored by the Botanical Society of America and the Ecological Society of America, American Institute of Biological Sciences meetings, Indiana University, Bloomington, August 1981.

Invited participant, USA-Australian Workshop on Stomatal Function, East-West Center, University of Hawaii, April 11-15, 1983.

Invited Panel Member, Symposium on Current Methods of Photosynthetic Measurements in Plant Ecophysiological Research, American Institute of Biological Science meetings, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, August 7 11, 1983.  (With W. Oechel, San Diego State University, and B. Strain, Duke University.)

Invited participant: Establishment and Tending of Subalpine Forests (H. Turner and W. Tranquillini, organizers) Zurich, Switzerland, September 2 -12, 1984.

Invited to be organizer for panel on water relations, workshop on tree ecophysiology, CRC Press volume, Techniques and Methodology in Forest Tree Ecophysiology.  Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, August 17-19, 1986.

Invited participant, International Workshop on “Closure of the Carbon, Water, and Nutrient Cycles in Temperate Forests”.  Sponsored by the USDA, U.S. Forest Service, The National Science Foundation, and the Electric Power Research Institute.  (M.R. Kaufmann and J.J. Landsberg, organizers) Granby, Colorado, June 10-15, 1990.

Primary organizer for international workshop “Physiological Ecology of Coniferous Forest:  A Contemporary Synthesis”  held at the UW/National Park Service Research Center, Jackson Hole, WY., Sept. 16-19, 1991 (Co-organizer Dr. T.M. Hinckley, University of Washington, Seattle.)

Invited participant, Subcommittee for the Review of the Program for Ecosystem Research, Environmental Sciences Division, Department of Energy, San Diego, CA., June 6-9, 1994.

Invited participant, Committee on Global Climate Change: Early Detection Methodology, Batelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Department of Energy, July, Sept. and Nov. meetings, 1994.

Invited participant and organizer,  National EPSCoR Meeting, Jackson, WY., 1995

Invited participant, workshop for the National Institute for Global Environmental Change, Great Plains Regional Center, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Sept. 26-29. 1995.

Invited participant: Temperature effects of global change and climate variability, Aspen Institute for Global Change, Aspen, Colorado, August 9-22, 1999

Chair, Ozone effects on forest decline in the Eastern Forests, USA, Air Pollution Conference, Duke University, Durham, NC.  November 27-30, 1999.

Invited participant, The biochemistry, physiology, and population biology of arctic and alpine plants. Lauteret Alpine Institute, Villar d’ Arene, Hautess-Alpes, France, Aug. 31-Sept. 2, 2000.

Lead Organizer for workshop and symposium “Leaf Form/Function as Related to Photosynthetic Performance”. Ecological Society of America, Summer, 2001

Lead Organizer for workshop to be held as a satellite meeting for the 12th International Congress on Photosynthesis (Scaling Photosynthesis from the Chloroplast to the Landscape), Brisbane, Australia, August 17-24, 2001.  (Meeting in support of edited book, Academic Press, Ecological Studies Series).

Invited participant, Alpine Treeline Ecosystems, 2006 USGS and US Forest Service, Glacier, MT.

Lead Organizer for Workshop Sustaining Barrier Island Ecosystems and Global Change, 2006, NSF. April 12-15, Univ Southern Mississippi, Gulfport, MS

Invited Participant: Workshop on Global Climate Change. 2007. Hewlett Foundation/Nat Commission on Energy Policy,    Washington, DC

Lead Organizer, Coastal Barrier Island Network, Galveston, TX, Jan. 2009.

Co-organizer, 44th Symposium on Coastal Geomorphology, 2013, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Binghamton, NJ, USA

Co-organizer, Synthesis Workshop on the Coupling of Vegetation and Geomorphology in Barrier Islands. 2014. South Padre Island, TX

 

CO-AUTHORED  PRESENTATIONS  BY  COLLEAGUES  AND  STUDENTS (1978-1988 only)

Young, D.R. and W.K. Smith.  1978.  Microhabitat variation and ecophysiological differences in Arnica cordifolia.  Paper presented to the Physiological Ecology Section of the Ecological Society of America meetings, August 20-25, 1978, Athens, GA.

Young, D.R. and W.K. Smith.  1979.  Influence of sunflecks on the water relations for two subalpine understory congeners.  Paper presented to the SWARM Division of the AAAS, April 24-28, 1979, Durango, CO.

Geller, G.N. and W.K. Smith.  1979.  Plant transpiration at high elevation:  Theory and field measurements, comparisons with desert plants.  Paper presented to the SWARM Division of the AAAS, April 24-28, 1979, Durango, CO.

Young, D.R. and W.K. Smith.  1979.  Influence of sunflecks on leaf structure , water, and photosynthetic relations of Arnica cordifolia.  Paper Presented to the Physiological Ecology Section of the Ecological Society of America, August 12-17, 1979  Stillwater, OK.

Allen, M.F., P.D. Stahl and W.K. Smith.  1979.  Increased transpiration and photosynthetic rates in Bouteloua gracilis infected with Glomus fasiculatus. Paper presented to the N. Amer. Conference on Mycorrhizae, June 24-27, 1979, Fort Collins, CO.

Allen, M.F., W.K. Smith and M. Christensen.  1979.  Comparative photosynthetic rates and water relations of Bouteloua gracilis with and without vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae.  Paper presented to the AIBS, Mycological Society, August 13-19, 1979, Stillwater, OK.

Young, D.R. and W.K. Smith.  1980.  Optimal leaf sizes for minimizing transpiration indifferent habitats.  Paper presented to the SWARM Division of the AAAS, April 9-14, 1980, Las Vegas, NV.

Geller, G.N. and W.K. Smith.  1980.  Optimal leaf sizes for minimizing transpiration in different habitats.  Paper presented to the SWARM Division of the AAAS, April 9-14, 1980, Las Vegas, NV.

Young, D.R. and W.K. Smith.  1980.  A simulation model for predicting water and photosynthetic relations of a subalpine, understory species.  Paper presented to the Physiological Ecology Section of the Ecological Society of America meetings, August 4-9, 1980, Tuscon, AZ.

Geller, G.N. and W.K. Smith.  1980.  The influence of leaf size on transpiration at high elevations in Wyoming.  Paper presented to the Physiological Ecology Section of the Ecological Society of America Meetings, August 4-9, 1980, Tucson, AZ.

Allen, M.F., T.S. Moore, Jr., W.K. Smith and M. Christensen.  1980.  The influence of VA mycorrhizae on ecophysiological characteristics and phytohormones of Bouteloua gracilis.  Paper presented to the Mycological Society of America Meetings, August 4-9, 1980, Tucson, AZ.

Young, D.R. and W.K Smith.  1981.  The importance of cloudcover to the water and photosynthetic relations of three understory species.  Paper presented to the Botanical Sciences Section, Southwestern and Rocky Mountain Division AAAS meetings, April 22-25, 1981, University of Northern Colorado, Greeley.

Knapp, A.K. and W.K. Smith.  1981.  Seasonal and diurnal water relations of three subalpine conifers in understory and open environments.  Paper presented to the AAAS meetings, April 22-25, 1981, University of Northern Colorado, Greeley. (Student Paper Award in the Botanical Sciences Section.)

Knapp, A.K. and W.K. Smith.  1981.  Water relations and succession in Wyoming conifers.  Paper presented to the Ecological Society of America of AIBS meetings, August 8-12, 1981, Indiana University, Bloomington.

Hadley, J.L and W.K Smith.  1981.  Influence of winter needle classification on krummholz growth forms near timberline in Wyoming.  Paper presented to the Ecological Society of America, AIBS meetings, August 8-12, 1981, Indiana University, Bloomington.

Young, D.R.  1981.,  Simulations of optimal growth and reproductive patterns in western coniferous forests.  Symposium entitled “Ecology of Forest Understory Plants” sponsored by the Botanical Society of America, AIBS meetings, August 8-12, 1981, Indiana University, Bloomington.

Young, D.R. and W.K. Smith.  1982.  Intraspecific variation in the reproductive effort to the understory herb, Arnica cordifolia.  Paper presented to the Colorado-Wyoming Academy of Science, April 23-24, 1982, Fort Collins, CO.

Hadley, J.L. and W.K. Smith.  1982.  Winter wind exposure and water loss of Engelmann spruce at timberline in southeastern Wyoming.  Paper presented to the Colorado-Wyoming Academy of Sciences, Botanical Sciences Section, April 23-24, 1982, Fort Collins, CO. (Student Paper Award in Biological Sciences.)

Young, D.R. and W.K. Smith.  1981.  The effect of cloudcover on the light regime, Photosynthesis, and water relations of the understory species Arnica latifolia. AIBS meetings, Ecological Society of America, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA.

Hadley, J.L. and W.K. Smith.  1982.  Seasonal influence of wind on conifer needle disiccation and death near timberline in Wyoming.  AIBS meetings, Ecological Society of America, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA.

Hadley, J.L. and W.K. Smith.  1983.  Winter wind exposure and water potential for timberline conifers in Wyoming.  AIBS meetings, Ecological Society of America, August 7-11, 1983, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks.

Cater, G.A., J.L. Hadley, W.K. Smith and D.H. Knight.  1983.  Summer water relations of three southeastern Wyoming conifers at high and low elevation sites.  AIBS meetings, Ecological Society of America, August 7-11, 1983, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks.

McNaughton, G.M. and W.K. Smith.  1984.  Environmental and plant parameters leading to seasonal stomatal closure in Fall in six conifer species of the central Rocky Mountains.  Northwest Science Forest Conference, March 24-28, 1984, University of Montana, Missoula.

Hadley, J.L. and W.K. Smith.  1984.  Microclimate modification in krummholz growth forms:  influence on survival of timberline conifers.  Paper presented at AIBS meetings, Ecological Section, August 5-9, 19084, Colorado State University, Fort Collins.

Carter, G.A. and W.K. Smith.  1984.  Influence of needle and shoot orientation on photosynthesis in Picea engelmannii, Abies lasiocarpa, and Pinus contorta saplings in southeastern Wyoming.  Paper presented to the AIBS meetings, Ecology Section, August 5-9, 1984, Colorado State University, Fort Collins.

Huang, Ruey-Shyang, W.K. Smith and R.M. Yost.  1984.  Influence of VA-mycorrhiza on growth, nutrient absorption, and water relations in Leucaena leucocephala.  4th International Conference on Mycorrhizae, June 18-24, 1984, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR.

Carter, G.A. and W.K. Smith.  1985.  Effects of photosynthesis and water relations on subalpine forest development.  Paper presented to the Ecological Society of America meetings, June 17-21, 1985, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.

Foster, J.R. and W.K. Smith.  1986.  Influence of stomatal distribution on transpiration.  Paper presented to the ESA meetings, August 11-16, 1986, Syracuse University, Syarcuse, NY.

Estill, D.A., R.L. Delaney and W.K. Smith.  1986  Photosynthetic and water relations of leaf size variants in alfalfa.  Presented to the Western Society of Crop Science, June 1419, 1986, Moscow, ID.

Foster, J.R. and W.K. Smith.  1987.  Daily and seasonal water relations of montane phreatophytes in the central Rocky Mountains.  Presented to the symposium Management of Subalpine Forests, USDA, July 6-10, 1987, Silver Creek, CO.

Hadley, J.L. and W.K. Smith.  1987.  Effects of Acid mist on needle physiology and mortality in timberline conifers.  Presented to the symposium Management of Subalpine Forests, USDA, July 6-10, 1987, Silver Creek, CO.

Knapp, A.K. and W.K. Smith.  1987.  Effects of cloud pattern on carbon and water relations in subalpine conifers.  Management of Subalpine Forests Workshop, USDA/USFS, July 6-10, 1987, Silver Creek, CO.

McClean, T.M., T.C. Vogelmann, A.K. Knapp and W.K. Smith.  1987.  Measurement of light within thin sections of plant tissue using fiber optics.  Presented to the annual meetings of the Botanical Society of America, August 9-13, 1987, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.  (Student Paper Award, Physiology Section).

Knapp, A.K., T.C. Vogelmann, T.M. McClean and W.K. Smith.  1987.  Measurement of light within thin sections of plant tissue using fiber optics.  Presented to the annual meetings of the Botanical Society of America, August 9-13, 1987, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

Knapp, A.K. and W.K. Smith.  1988.  Non-steady state coupling of photosynthesis and stomatal behavior during variable sunlight.  Presented to the annual meetings of the Ecological Society of America, AIBS meetings, University of California, Davis.  August 14-18, 1988.

McClean, T.M. and W.K. Smith.  1988.  Adaptive relationship between leaf water repellancy, stomatal distribution, and photosynthetic gas exchange.  Presented to the Ecological Society of America, AIBS meetings, University of California, Davis.  August 14-18, 1988.

Brown, L.A., A.K. Knapp, W.K. Smith and T.C. Vogelmann.  1988.  Distribution of light within sun leaves of Saxifraga rhomboidea irradiated on upper and lower surfaces.  Presented to the Botanical Society of America, AIBS meetings, University of California, Davis.  August 14-18, 1988.

 

[Since 1988, an additional 79 co-authored presentations have been presented by students or colleagues in the U.S. and abroad.  Thirteen of these have received Best Student Paper or Poster Awards in four different scientific societies (one was featured in BioScience, 1995– Michael Byum’s MS work on floral movements in the alpine Gentian).  Most recently, WFU undergraduate students Craig Brodersen and Scott Graham presented posters at the Assoc. Southeastern Biologists meeting at Appalachian State University, Boone, NC (2002).  The latter poster received an Acknowledgement Award (only three total awards given out of 52 competitors).  Tom Hancock (PhD student) also received a graduate research award (only two awarded) from the ASB at the same meetings. Also, Dan Johnson was awarded the best student paper in physiology at the Amer Botanical Society meetings at Univ. Texas, Austin, summer 2005, as well as the Odum Award for best paper in ecology at the Southeastern Biology Assoociation meetings in Nashville, TN (2006). Nicole Hughes received the following awards: Gordon A. Melson Award for Outstanding PhD Student in the Wake Forest Graduate School of Arts and Sciences Wake Forest University (2009); Physiological Section Award for Best Poster- 2008 Botanical Society of America meeting; Elton C. Cocke Award for Outstanding Graduate Student in Biology
Wake Forest University (2008); Best Student Paper Presentation In Botany- Awarded by the Southeastern Chapter of the Botanical Society of America at the 2008 meeting of the Association of Southeastern Biologists.  Best Student Poster In Botany- Awarded by the Southeastern Chapter of the Botanical Society of America at the 2008 meeting of the Association of Southeastern Biologists;  Euguene P. Odum Award for Best Student Paper Presentation in Ecology (runner-up) – Awarded by the Southeastern Chapter of the Ecological Society of America at the 2008 meeting of the Association of Southeastern Biologists;  Quarterman-Catherine Keever Award for best Student Poster in Ecology – Awarded by the Southeastern Chapter of the Ecological Society of America at the 2008 meeting of the Association of Southeastern Biologists; Billings Award for Best Ecophysiological Paper Presentation (runner-up) – Awarded by the Ecological Society of America at the 2007 meetin;. Conant Award for Botanical Imaging (third place)– Awarded by the Botanical Society of America at the 2007 meetin;. Eugene P. Odum Award for Best Student Paper in Ecology – Awarded by the Southeastern Chapter of the Ecological Society of America at the 2004 meeting of the Association of Southeastern Biologists.

 

GRADUATE  STUDENTS  SUPERVISED

Graduated

Donald R. Young.  M.S.  1979, Ph.D.  1982.   Professor and Head, Dept. of Biology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond.

Michael F. Allen.  Ph.D.  1980.  Professor, Dept. of Biology, Calif. State, University at San Diego (co-advised with Dr. Martha Christensen).

Gary N. Geller.  M.S.  1980.  Ph.D, University of California, 1985; Currently Associate Director, Earth Systems Division, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Calif. Inst. Technology, Pasadena, CA.

Peter D. Stahl.  M.S.  1981, Ph.D.  1989.  Assoc Prof, U Wyoming (co-advised with M. Christensen).

Geoffrey N. McNaughton M.S. 1985.  In Situ Environmental Laboratories, University of Washington, Seattle.

Gregory A. Carter.  Ph.D. 1986.  Research Scientist, NASA, Birmingham, Alabama; Assoc Prof, Geospatial Center, U South Mississippi.

Julian L. Hadley, Ph.D.  1986 (NSF Predoctoral Fellowship).  Research Professor, Harvard Forest, Harvard University, Cambridge, MS.

Alan K. Knapp.  M.S. 1981, Ph.D. 1989.  Professor, Department of Biological Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins.

Kristine Estill.  M.S. 1990.  Ph.D. Student, University of Arizona.

Anna W. Schoettle, Ph.D.  1991. Research Scientist, U.S. Forest Service, Fort Collins, Colorado.

Muyi Cui, Ph. D. 1991.Owner, Software Processes Inc,, Salt Lake City, UT.

Erik Hammerlynck, M.S. 1992. PhD, Kansas State University, Asst Prof., Rutgers University

Carol Brewer, Ph. D. 1993. Assoc. Professor, Division of Biological Sciences, University of Montana, Missoula.

Mark T. Hemmerlien, M.S. 1994. Research Co-ordinator, Environmental Division, State of Connecticut.

Kristen Mitchel, M.S.  1994.  Research Scientist,  Linear Laboratories, Salt Lake, City, UT; Univ of Washington Law School graduate, Seattle, WA

Amy S, Mueller, M.S. 1995 (NSF Predoctoral Fellowship).  Teaching Fellow, Polytechnical Institute, Equito, Ecuador

Dean N. Jordan, Ph.D.  1995. (DOE Predoctoral Fellowship),  Project Director, Terrestrial Ecology and Global Change Program ,University of Nevada.

Michael R. Bynum, M.S. 1995.  Teaching Faculty, Chadron State Univ, Chadron, NE

Catie A. Campbell, M.S. 1996; B.A. 1991, Dartmouth College, Nature Conservancy, Houston TX

Matthew J. Germino, M.S. 1996; B.S. 1994, University of Massachusetts, Amherst

Michele Slaton, M.S. 1998; B.S. 1996, University of Idaho, Moscow;

Matthew J. Germino (NASA Predoctoral Fellowship)- Associate Professor, Idaho State Univ ; Senior Research Leader, USGS, Boise, ID

Shelley M. James, PhD student (Australia), M.S. University of Western Australia, Perth

Michele Slaton, PhD  2001, Univ Wyoming, Leaturer, Western State College, CO; US Forest Service, White Mountain Research Station, Big Pine, CA

Jerry H. Winslow, PhD 1999, Univ Wyoming, Associate Professor, Texas A.M Univ.

Cynthia Willson, MS 1999, Univ. Wyoming (NSF Graduate Fellowship), PhD student, Duke University, now a physician with a private practice.

Pat Morgan, MS Univ. Wyoming 1999; PhD student Univ Vermont, Postdoc, NCSU

Judsen Hill,  MS 2000. Wake Forest University; PhD , Idaho State University

Craig Brodersen MS 2004. Wake Forest Univ, PhD, Univ Vermont; Assistant Prof, Univ Florida; Assist Prof, Yale University, Connecticut

Daniel Johnson, 2006,  PhD  (MS, NCSU); Postdoc Oregon State University USFS), Assistant Professor, Ohio University currently Asst Prof, Univ Idaho, Moscow

Keith Reinhardt, PhD 2009 (MS, Univ Virginia; Assist Prof, Idaho State Univ,., Idaho Sate Univ)

Nicole Hughes, PhD 2009(MS, Appalachian State Univ) WFU Award for best PhD Research; Assistant Professor, High Point University, High Point, NC

Tom Hancock PhD 2009 (MS, UNC Wilmington), Assistant Professor, Methodist University, Fayetteville, NC.

Allison Snow, MS (MS, WFU)

Heather Joesting, PhD (MS, Ohio University; Assistant Professor, Armstrong Atlantic University, Savanna GA)

Carter Berry, PhD, Postdoc, Univ New Hampshre

 

Current

Joesph White, PhD

Mary Jane Carmichael, PhD

Melanie Doyle, PhD

 

POSTDOCTORAL  ASSOCIATES

Dr. Jeffery R. Foster, 1984 to 1987, Ph.D. Dartmouth University, 1984.

Dr. Julian L. Hadley, 1986 to 1989, Ph.D. University of Wyoming, 1986.

Dr. Tad Day, 1987 to 1990, Ph.D. Colorado State University, 1987.

Dr. Dean N. Jordan, 1994-5, PhD University of Wyoming

Dr. Minna Turunen, 1996-7,Artic Center, University of Lapland, FINLAND

Dr. Tao Han, 1996-8, Beijing School of Forestry, China

Dr. Adriana Sanchez, 20011-14

 

UNDERGRADUATE  STUDENTS (worked in lab at WFU, not including Bio 340 students)

Emily Walters                John Track

David Schindler              Reid Larsen

Kelsey McDowell           Christine Manuck

Mike Gier                       Christine D’Alleinne

Mike Sprague                 Craig Brodersen

Spencer Bisset                Samantha Rieger

Judsen Hill                      David Harding

Wreana Best                   Christiana Buckman

Scott Graham                  Sean Taylor

Ben Robb                        Joseph Nuigal

 

JOURNAL  REVIEWS

Ecology, Oecologia Pl. Physiol., Can. J. Forest Research, Forest Science, Arctic, Antarctic & Alpine Research, Can. J. Bot. (now Botany), Botanical Gazette, Crop Science, J. Exp. Botany, Plant Cell & Env., Science, Nature, CRC Press, J. Ecology, Photosynthetica, Photosynthesis Research, Amer. J. Bot., Physiol. Plantarum, Bound. Layer Meterol., New Phytologist, Agric. & Forest. Meteorology., Ecological. Monog., Tree Physiology, Functional Ecology, Forest Ecology and Management, New Zealand Journal of Plant Physiology, New Zealand Journal of Ecology, Ecological Applications, Australian J. Plant Physiology, Amer. Midland Naturalist, Australian J. Plant Ecology, Intern. J. Plant Sciences, Physiologia Plantarum, Oecologia Plantarum, Plant & Soil, J. Range Management, Proc. Nat Acad Sciences, Plant Ecology, For Ecol Management, Can J Forest Res., Trees, Global Climate Change, J Geophysical Res., Global Change Biology, Botany, Plant Ecology, Castanea, Torrey Botanical Club, Botany

 

GRANT  REVIEWS

NSF, USDA, NASA, DOE, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. EPA, U.S. Forest Service, U.S. Park Service, National Geographic Society, BLM, Office of Mined Land Reclamation, Nature Conservancy, Carnegie-Mellon Foundation.

 

CURRICULUM  VITAE

 

 

WILLIAM  KIRBY  SMITH

Charles H. Babcock Chaired Professor in Botany

Department of Biology

Wake Forest University

Winston-Salem,  NC              27109-7325

Tel: 336-758-5779

FAX: 336-758-6008

Email: smithwk@wfu.edu

http//wksmithlab.org/

 

EDUCATION

1968             California State University, San Diego, B.S. (biology/physics)

1969-71        California State University, San Diego, M.S.(animal physiological and biophysical ecology)

Advisor, Professor Phillip C. Miller (deceased)

1972-77        University of California, Los Angeles, Ph.D. (plant biophysical/physiological ecology),

Advisor, Distinguished Professor Park S. Nobel

 

MILITARY

1968-69           Commissioned Naval Aviator, U.S. Naval Air Station, Pensacola,

Florida; active duty U.S.S. Coral Sea, Honorable Disability Discharge

 

ACADEMIC  POSITIONS

1979-             Assistant Professor of Botany,  University of Wyoming

1983             (Spring Semester) Visiting Assistant Professor of Botany, University of Hawaii

1983-88         Associate Professor of Botany,  University of Wyoming

1985    (Spring semester)  Visiting Associate Professor of Botany, University of Hawaii

  • Professor of Botany, University of Wyoming
  • 1992 (Spring semester)  Visiting Professor of Botany, University of Western Australia, Perth

1995-6           Professor and Interim Head, Department of Botany, UW

1998-pres     Charles H. Babcock Endowed Chair in Botany, Department of Biology, Wake Forest University

2002-3          Visiting Fellow, Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, Japan

2003-4          Visiting Scholar, Republic of Georgia Institute of Botany, Tbilisi, Georgia (FSU)

 

ADMINISTRATIVE  EXPERIENCE

Univ Wyoming

1977-1981       Faculty Senator for Botany Department

1979-1986       Supervisor, Botany Department Greenhouse (Now the UW Conservatory), U Wyoming

1979-1986       Biological Field Station Co-director (with G.J. Baxter), University of Wyoming

1981-1983       Tenure and Promotion Committee, College of Arts and Sciences

1981-1984    Executive Nominating Committee, AAAS (Southwest and Rocky Mountain section)

1982-4             President, Colorado-Wyoming Academy of Sciences

1982-3             Vice-chairman, Botanical Sciences Section, Southwestern and Rocky Mountain Section of AAAS

1983-4          Chair, Botanical Sciences Section, Southwestern and Rocky Mountain Section of AAAS

1986-8          Chair, Arts and Sciences Central Committee (faculty advisory committee to Dean)

1987-8             Chair, University Review Committee for new Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, UW

1989-1991    Chair, Faculty Summer Fellowship Award Committee, Arts and Sciences

1990-1             Interdisciplinary Speakers Committee

1990-2             Chair, University Tenure and Promotion Committee

1994-6            Chair, University Review Committee for Department of Geography and Recreation, UW

1995-6            Chair, University Review Committee for Facilities Planning and Architecture       Department

1995-6             Interim Head, Department of Botany

1996-7          member, Arts and Sciences Review Committee for review of all A&S departments

1997-2000    member, review panel, Agricultural Experiment Station Grant Competition (Hatch funds)

 

Wake Forest Univ

1998-2000, 2006      Member, Science Research Fund Committee, A&S

1998- 2002     Greenhouse Supervisor

2005-    Chair, Vecellio Graduate Research Award Committee

2011-present       Associate Director- Center for Energy, Environment and Sustainability;

 

TEACHING  RESPONSIBILITIES

University of Wyoming (1977-1998)–While at Wyoming I taught Biol. 1000 or 1010 and Bot. 5720 both semesters and have alternated Bot. 4750 with Bot. 5760 during the spring semester.  I also taught Bot. 5750 every fall semester and Bot. 5770 about once every three years, and Bot. 673D during summers (5 wk session) each summer from 1978 to 1985.  I have always received very good to excellent student and peer evaluations of my teaching and was nominated for a Golden Apple Award on three different occasions in both the majors and non-majors freshmen biology course.

 

            -Wake Forest University (1998-present)—primary courses:  Biol 113 (Ecology and Evolutionary Biology); Biol. 347-8 (Plant Physiological Ecology); Biol. 777 (Biophysical Ecology).

 

CURRENT (Lect/Seminar) COURSES (WFU) CREDITS ENROLLMENT
Bio 113 Gen. Biol.Bio 347-8 Plant Physiological Ecology     43-4 200-30015-20
Bio 777 Biophysical Ecology     3   10 – 20
Bio 732 Plant Evolution Seminar     2  10- 20
Bio 724 Research in Plant Physiological Ecology    1-3   1-3
Bio 744 Independent Study  in Plant Physiol EcolBio 390 Research Experiences for UndergraduatesBio 114 Comparative Physiology  1-61-3 

4

1-31-3 

72

                                

RESEARCH  INTEREST

Plant adaptation to harsh or unusual environments; plant ecophysiology (temperature, water and carbon relations, water use efficiency); environmental biophysics ( microclimate effects on plant growth and distribution); structural/functional relationships of plant leaves; light absorption efficiency of plant crowns and canopies; spectral signatures of plant stress; radiation frosts, low temperature photoinhibition (including UV effects), mechanisms of UV absorption, eddy diffusion and stable isotope analysis of CO2 and H2O exchange from native and crop species, aerial sensing of spectral properties and CO2 exchange of plants.

 

CURRENT  RESEARCH  PROJECTS/ACTIVITIES

Effects of global climate change on high elevation forests with an emphasis on timberlines/treelines in the western US and the relic spruce-fir forests of the southern Appalachian Mountains; mechanisms of young seedling survival and forest regeneration; impacts of extreme, episodic events on the vegetative stability of barrier island ecosystems; effects of cloud-immersion on mountaintop forest species; anthocyanin pigments in leaves and photoinhibition of photosynthesis.

 

AWARDS  AND  HONORS      

Burlington Northern Award for Academic Achievement, 1990. Univ of Wyoming

Presidential Award for Distinguished Faculty Scholarship, Univ. of Wyoming, 1991.

Doctoral Dissertation Mentor Excellence Award 1996, Special (first-time) award from the Graduate School, University of Wyoming.

Meritorious Award for Research, Department of Botany, UW (1992, 1994, 1995, 1997)

Nominated for Apple Award for Teaching in large freshman courses (Gen. Biol.), UW (1990, 1992,      1994)

Doctoral Dissertation Advisor Award, College of Arts & Sciences, University of Wyoming  (1986, 1988, 1991, 1993, 1995, and 1996).

 

INVITED  PUBLIC  ENGAGEMENT

“Plants in the Understory”, 1996.  Discovering Life Series,  The Private Life of Plants, David Attenborough, BBC.  Segment describing our research on sunlight processing by leaves, leaf surface water repulsion, etc. (with TC Vogelmann)

“Ecophysiological adaptations in alpine plants”, 1996.  Excerpt (pg. 620) in Biology, 4th edition, P. Raven and R. Johnson, featuring work done by undergraduate and graduate students in my laboratory.

“Colorful Snow May Yield Secrets for Hardy Crops”, 1998. Science and Technology section, The Christian Science Monitor, Wends. Jan. 8, 1998.

“Light and Leaves”, 1998.  Invited article, “The Future of Science, Encyclopedia Britanica, Annual Volume: 1231-1233.

“The Alpine Forest” Smith, WK., Reinhardt, KA, and DM Johnson. 2006. The Alpine Forest.  In The

Encyclopedia of Ecology: Elsevier, NY.

“Why are evergreen trees pyramid shaped” Earth Sky Broadcasts

“Alpine flowers can predict rainfall”  Indiana Univ Radio

         

 

EDITORIAL  POSITIONS                                     

Editorial Board,  Ecology  (1992-96)

Subject Editor,  Tree Physiology  (1990-present)

Editor,  Physiological Ecology of Coniferous Forest,  Physiological Ecology Series, Academic Press, NY. 376 pgs. (1994)

Editor,  Resource Physiology of Conifers: Acquisition, Allocation and Utilization.  Physiological Ecology Series, Academic Press, NY. 336 pgs. (1994)

Editor,  Photosynthetic Adaptation: Chloroplast to Landscape, Ecological Studies 178, Springer, NY, 316p (2004).

Editorial Board, Tree Physiology (2003-2007)

Editorial Advisory Committee, Eurasian Journal of Forest Research, 2005-present                        

Nature Reader, 2008-present

Editorial Board, J Botany 2007-present

Co-Editor with Eric De La Cabrerra.  2008.  Current Perspectives in Biophysical Ecophysiology, Univ Calif Press,  in press.

                                                                        

AGENCY  REVIEW  PANELS

         Physiological Ecology and Population Biology, NSF (1984, 1988, 1992, 1994, 1996, 1998)

Plant Response to the Environment, USDA Competitive Grants Program (1990, 1995)

Ecosystem Response Program, DOE (1993-4)

Ecology Panel, NSF (1993-5)

Committee on Atmospheric Climate Change, Batelle Scientific, DOE (1992-94)

EPSCoR Review Committee, NSF (1994-6)

Science Review Board, US Forest Service, Fort Collins, CO (1990-present)

Joint Program on Terrestrial Ecology and Global Change, NSF ,DOE, NASA, U.S. EPA and USDA (1995-8)

Doctoral Dissertation Awards in Ecology, NSF (1997-2000)

Agricultural Experiment Station Review Panel, USDA Forest Service (1996-2004)

Science and Technology Centers, Integrative Partnerships panel, NSF (2001-2003)

Ecological and Evolutionary Physiology, Environmental Systems and Structure panel, NSF (2006- 2007, 2010)

Global Change Biology review panel, DOE (2013-14)

         Graduate predoctoral fellowship panel, NSF (2012-14)

                            

REFEREED  PUBLICATIONS

Smith, W.K. and P.C. Miller. 1973. The thermal ecology of two south Florida fiddler crabs, Uca rapax Smith and U. pugilator Bosc. Physiol. Zool. 46(3): 186-207.

Smith, W.K., Roberts, S.W. and P.C. Miller. 1974. Calculating the nocturnal energy expenditure of an incubating Anna’s hummingbird. Condor 76(2): 176-183.

Nobel, P.S., Zaragoza, L.J. and W.K. Smith. 1975. Relation between mesophyll surface area, photosynthetic rate, and illumination level during development for leaves of Plectranthus parviflorus Henckel. Plant Physiol. 55: 1067-1070.

Smith, W.K. and P.S. Nobel. 1977. Temperature and water relationships for sun and shade leaves of a desert broadleaf Hyptis emoryi. J. Exp. Bot. 28: 171-185.

Smith, W.K. and P.S. Nobel. 1978. Influence of seasonal changes in leaf morphology on water use efficiency for three desert broadleaf shrubs. Ecology 58: 1033-1043.

Smith, W.K. 1978. Leaf Temperatures of desert plants: Another perspective on the adaptability of leaf size. Science 201: 614-616.

Smith, W.K. and P.S. Nobel. 1978. Influence of irradiation, soil water potential, and leaf temperature on leaf morphology of a desert broad leaf, Encelia farinosa Gray (Compositae) Amer. J. Bot. 75:429-4320

Smith, W.K. And G.N. Geller. 1979. Plant transpiration at high elevations: theory, field measurement, and comparisons with desert plants. Oecologia 41: 109-122.

Young, D.R. and W.K. Smith. 1979. Influence of sunflecks on the temperature and water relations of two subalpine understory congeners. Oecologia 43: 194-205.

Smith, W.K. 1980. Importance of aerodynamic resistance to water use efficiency in three conifers under field conditions. Plant Physiol. 65: 132-135.

Smith, W.K. and G.N. Geller. 1980. Leaf and environmental parameters influencing transpiration at high elevation: Theory and field measurement. Oecologia 46: 308-314.

Young , D.R. and W. K. Smith. 1980. Influence of sunlight on photosynthesis, water relations, and leaf structure in the understory species Arnica cordifolia. Ecology. 60:1380-1390.

Smith, W.K. 1981 Temperature and water relation patterns in subalpine understory plants. Oecologia 48: 353-359.

Allen, M.F., Smith, W.K., Moore, T.S. and M. Christensen. 1981. Comparative water relations and photosynthesis of mycorrhizal and non‑mycorrhizal Bouteloua gracilis. New Phytologist 88: 683-693.

Knapp, A.K. and W.K. Smith. 1981. Water relations and succession in subalpine conifers in southeastern Wyoming. Botanical Gazette 142: 502-511.

Geller, G.N. and W.K. Smith. 1982. Influence of leaf size, orientation, and arrangement on temperature and transpiration in three high elevation, large-leafed herbs. Oecologia 53: 227-234.

Young, D.R. and W.K. Smith. 1982. Simulation studies of the influence of understory location on transpiration and photosynthesis in Arnica cordifolia Hook. Ecology 63: 1761-1771.

Knapp, A.K. and W.K. Smith. 1982. Factors influencing understory seedling establishment of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) in southeast Wyoming. Canadian Journal of Botany 60: 2753-2761.

Hadley, J.L. and W.K. Smith. 1983. Influence of wind exposure on needle desiccation and mortality in timberline conifers in Wyoming, U.S.A. Arctic and Alpine Res. 15: 127-135.

Young, D.R. and W.K. Smith. 1983. Effect of cloudcover on photosynthesis and transpiration in the subalpine understory species Arnica latifolia. Ecology 64: 681-687.

Smith, W.K., Knapp, A.K., Pearson, J.A., Varman, J.H., Yavitt J.B. and D.R. Young. 1983. Influence of microclimate and growth form on plant temperatures of early spring species in a high elevation prairie community. American Midland Naturalist 109: 380-389.

Stahl, P. and W.K. Smith. 1984. Effects of different geographic isolates of Glomus on water relations of Agropyron smithii. Mycologia 76: 261-267.

Smith, W.K. 1984. Environmental limitations on leaf conductance in central Rocky Mountain conifers, USA. In: Establishment and Tending of Subalpine Forests (H. Turner and W. Tranquillini, eds.). Eidg. Anst. Forstl. Versuchwes. Rev. 270: 95-101.

Smith, W.K., Young, D.R., Carter, G.A., Hadley, J.L. and G.M. McNaughton. 1984. Autumn stomatal closure in six conifer species of the central Rocky Mountains. Oecologia 63: 237-243.

Huang, R.S., Yost, R.S. and W.K. Smith. 1983. Influence of VA mycorrhiza on growth, nutrient absorption and water relations in Leucaena leucoceplala. (LAM) Dewit Leucaena-Research-reports. 4: 86-87.

Huang, R.S., Smith, W.K. and R.S. Yost. 1985. Influence of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae on growth, water relations, and leaf orientation in Leucaena leucocephala (LAM) Dewit. New Phytologist 99: 229-243.

Foster, J.R. Smith, W.K. (1985) Influence of stomatal distribution on transpiration in low-wind environments. Plant, Cell and Environment 9, 751–759. Links

Carter, G.A. and W.K. Smith. 1985. Influence of shoot structure on light interception and photosynthesis in conifers. Plant. Physiol. 79: 1038-1042.

Smith, W.K. 1985. Chapter 5: Montane forests. In: The Physiological Ecology of North American Plant Communities (B.F. Chabot and H.A. Mooney, eds.). Chapman and Hall, Ltd., pp. 95-126.

Hadley, J.L. and W.K. Smith. 1986. Wind effects on needles of timberline conifers; seasonal influence on mortality. Ecology 67: 12-19.

DeLucia, E.H. and W.K. Smith. 1987. Air and soil temperature limitations on photosynthesis in Engelmann spruce during summer. Can. J. For. Res. 17: 527-533.

Knapp, A.K. and W.K. Smith. 1987. Stomatal and photosynthetic responses to sun/shade transitions in subalpine plants: influence on water use efficiency. Oecologia 74: 62-67.

Carter, G.A. and W.K. Smith. 1987. Stomatal conductance in three conifer species at different elevations during summer in Wyoming. Can. J. For. Res. 18: 242-246.

Hadley, J.L. and W.K. Smith. 1987. Influence of krummholz mat microclimate on needle physiology and survival. Oecologia 73: 82-90.

Smith, W.K., E.H. DeLucia and A.K. Knapp. 1987. Environmental limitations to photosynthesis in subalpine plants of the Rocky Mountains. In: Management of Subalpine Forests: Building on 50 Years of Research. USDA, USFS Public 1463, 253 pp.

Smith, W.K. and G.A. Carter. 1988. Shoot structural effects of needle temperature and photosynthesis in conifers. Amer. J. Bot. 75: 496-500.

Knapp, A.K. and W.K. Smith. 1988. Effect of water stress on stomatal and photosynthetic responses to cloud pattern in subalpine plants. Amer. J. Bot. 75: 851-858.

Carter, G.A., W.K. Smith and J.L. Hadley. 1988. Stomatal conductance in three conifer species at different elevations during summer in Wyoming. Can. J. For. Res. 18: 242-246.

Vogelmann, T.C., Knapp, A.K.,  McClean T.M. and W.K. Smith. 1988. Measurement of light within thin plant tissues using fiber optic microprobes. Physiol. Plant 72: 623-630.

Knapp, A.K., Vogelmann, T.C., McClean, T.M. and W.K. Smith. 1988. Light and chlorophyll gradients within Curcurbita cotyledons. Pl. Cell Environ. 11: 257-263.

Carter, G.A. and W.K. Smith. 1987. Microhabitat comparisons of transpiration and photosynthesis in three subalpine conifers. Can. J. Botany 66: 963-969.

Knapp, A.K. and W.K. Smith. 1989. Influence of growth form on ecophysiological responses to variable sunlight in subalpine plants. Ecology 70: 1069-1082.

Smith, W.K. and T.M. McClean. 1989. Adaptive relationship between leaf water repellency, stomatal distribution, and gas exchange. Amer. J. Botany 76: 465-469.

Henkel, T.W., Smith, W.K. and M. Christensen. 1989. Infectivity and effectivity of indigenous vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi from contiguous soils in southeast Wyoming, USA. New Phytol. 112: 205-214.

Smith, W.K., Knapp, A.K. and W.A. Reiners. 1989. Penumbral effects on sunlight penetration in plant communities. Ecology 70: 1603-1609.

Hadley, J.L., and W.K. Smith. 1989. Wind erosion of leaf surface wax in alpine timberline conifers. Artic. Alp. Res. 21: 392-398.

Day, T.A., E.H. DeLucia and W.K. Smith. 1989. Influence of cold soil and snow cover on photosynthesis and conductance in two Rocky Mountain conifers. Oecologia 80:546-552.

Knapp, A.K., Smith, W.K. and D.R. Young. 1989. Importance of intermittent shade to the ecophysiology of subalpine herbs. Funct. Ecol. 3: 753-758.

Day, T.A., DeLucia, E.H. and W.K. Smith. 1990. Dorsiventrality of the photosynthetic light response in naturally occurring C3 dicots. Current Research in Photosynthesis 4:883-886.

Knapp, A.K. and W.K. Smith. 1990. Stomatal and photosynthetic responses to variable sunlight. What’s New in Plant Physiology, Physiol. Plant 78: 160-165.

Hadley, J.L. and W.K. Smith. 1990. Influence of leaf surface wax and leaf area-to‑water content ratio on cuticular transpiration in conifers. Can. J. For. Res. 20:1306-1311.

Knapp, A.K. and W.K. Smith. 1990. Contrasting stomatal and photosynthetic responses to variable sunlight in two subalpine herbs. Amer. J. Bot. 77:226-231.

Smith, W.K. and A.K. Knapp. 1990. Ecophysiology of high elevation forests. In: Plant Biology of the Great Basin and Range. C.B. Osmond and L. Pitelka, eds., Ecological Studies Series, Springer-Verlag, London, p. 87-142.

Foster, JR and WK Smith. 1990. Stomatal conductance patterns and environment in high elevation phreatophytes in Wyoming. Canadian J Botany 69: 647-655.

Cui, M. and W.K. Smith. 1990. Photosynthesis and water relations of young seedlings of Abies lasiocarpa with high natural mortality. Tree Physiol. 8:37-46.

Day, T.A., DeLucia, E.H. and W.K. Smith. 1990. Effect of soil temperature on stem sap flow, shoot gas exchange and water potential in Picea engelmannii during snowmelt: Oecologia. 84:474-481.

Smith, W.K. and D. Hollinger. 1990. Stomatal behavior. In: Ecophysiology of Forest Trees: Techniques and Methodologies (J.P. Lassoie and T.M. Hinckley, eds.). CRC press, NY pp. 141-176.

Smith, W.K., Schoettle, A.W. and M. Cui. 1991. Importance of leaf area measurement to the interpretation of gas exchange parameters of complex shoots (e.g. conifers). Tree Physiol. 8:121-127.

Cui, M. and W.K. Smith. 1991. Seedling microenvironment, gas exchange and survival during first year establishment in subalpine conifers Tree Physiol. 10:44-53.

Knapp, A.K. and W.K. Smith. 1991. Gas Exchange responses to variable sunlight in two Sonoran Desert herbs: comparison with subalpine species. Bot. Gaz. 152(2):269-274.

Estil, K., R.H. Delaney and W.K. Smith 1991. Water relations and productivity of alfalfa chlorophyll variants. Crop Science 31:1229-1239.

Cui, M., Vogelmann, T.C. and W.K. Smith. 1991. Chlorophyll and light gradients in sun and shade leaves of Spinacia oleracea. Plant, Cell, & Environ. 14:493-500.

Brewer, C.A., Smith, W.K. and T.C. Vogelmann. 1991. Functional interaction between leaf trichomes, leaf wettability, and the optical properties of water droplets. Pl., Cell, & Environ. 14:955-962.

Foster, J.R. and W.K. Smith. 1991. Stomatal conductance patterns and environment in high elevation phreatophytes of Wyoming. Can. J. Bot. 69:647-655.

Smith, W.K. and R.A. Donahue. 1991. Simulated influence of altitude on photosynthetic CO2 uptake potential in plants. Plant, Cell & Environ. 14:133-136

Brewer, C.A., Smith, W.K. and T.C. Vogelmann. 1991. Functional interaction between leaf trichomes, leaf wettability, and the optical properties of water droplets. Pl., Cell, & Environ. 14:955-962.

Schoettle, A.W. and W.K. Smith. 1991. Interrelation between shoot characteristics and solar irradiance in the crown of Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia. Tree Physiol. 9: 245-254.

Jordan, D.N. and W.K. Smith. 1993. Simulated influence of leaf geometry on sunlight interception and photosynthesis in conifer needles. Tree Physiol. 13: 29-39.

Pennell, WT, et al. 1993. The detection of global climate change, 4th Symposium on Global Change Studies, Amer Meteor Society, Boston, MA, Jan 17-22.

Estill, K., Delaney, R.L., Ditterline, R.H. and W.K. Smith. 1993. Water relations and productivity of alfalfa populations divergently selected for leaf size. Field Crops Research. 33:423-434.

Brewer, C.A., Smith, W.K. 1994. Influence of simulated dewfall on photosynthesis and yield in soybean isolines Glycine max L. Merr. cv williams with different trichome densities. Int. J. Plant Sci. 155: 460-466.

Smith, W.K., Brewer, C.A. 1994. The adaptive importance of shoot and crown architecture in conifer trees. Amer. Nat. 143: 528-532.

Hemmerlein, M.T., Smith, W.K. 1994.  Structural scaling of light interception efficiency in Picea engelmannii and Abies llasiocarpa. Tree Physiol. 14:1139-1148.

Hamerlynk, E.P., Smith. W.K. 1994.  Subnivean and emergent microclimate, photosynthesis, and growth in Erythronium grandiflorum Pursh, a snowbank geophyte. Arctic. Apl. Res. 26: 21-28.

Jordan, D.N. and W.K. Smith. 1994.  Energy balance analysis of nighttime leaf temperatures and frost formation in a subalpine environment Agric. For. Metorol. 71:359-372.             

Smith, W.K., and T.M. Hinckley. 1994. (Eds.)  Resource Physiology of Conifers:  Acquisition, Allocation, and Utilization.  Academic Press, New York. 412 pp.

Smith, W.K., and T.M. Hinckley. 1994. (Eds.)  Ecophysiology of Coniferous Forests.  Academic Press, New York. 386 pp.

Hadley, JL and WK Smith. 1994. Effects of elevation and foliar age on maximum leaf resistance to water vapor diffusion in conifers of the central Rocky Mountains, USA. NATO ASI Series 36, Air pollution and the leaf cuticle. Eds KE Percy, JN Cape, R Jagels and CJ Simpson, Springer Verlag. pp 261-268.

Jordan, D.N. and W.K. Smith. 1995. Radiation frost susceptibility and the association between sky exposure and leaf size.  Oecologia 103: 43-48.

Jordan, D.N. and W.K. Smith. 1995.  Microclimate factors influencing the frequency and duration of growth season frost in subalpine plants. Agric. For. Meteorol 77: 17-30.

Brewer, C.A., and W.K. Smith. 1995.  Leaf surface wetness and gas exchange in the pond lily Nuphar polysepalumAmer. J. Bot. 82: 1271-1277.

Hadley, J.L., Smith, W.K. 1995. Effect of elevation and foliar age on maximum leaf resistance to water vapor diffusion in conifers of the Central Rock y Mountains, USA. In: Air Pollutants and the Leaf Cuticle, K.E. Pearcy (ed). Springer-Verlag, NATO ASI Series, Vol. G36:261-268.

Vogelmann, T.C., Nishio, J.N. and W.K. Smith. 1996. Leaves and light capture: Light propagation and gradients of carbon fixation within leaves. Trends in Plant Science 1: 65-71.

DeLucia, E. H., K. Nelson, T. C. Vogelmann, and W. K. Smith. 1996. Contribution of intercellular reflectance to photosynthesis in shade leaves, Plant, Cell & Environ.19: 159-170.

Brewer, C.A. and W.K. Smith. 1997.  Patterns of leaf surface wetness in montane and subalpine plants.  Plant. Cell & Environment 20: 1-11.

Smith. W.K., Vogelmann, T.C.., Bell, D. T., DeLucia, E. H., and K. A. Shepherd. 1997. Leaf Form and Photosynthesis.  BioScience 47:785-793.

Smith, W.K., D.T. Bell and K.A. Shepherd. 1998. Associations between leaf orientation, structure and sunlight exposure in five western Australian communities. Amer. J. Bot., 84: 1698-1707.

James, S.A., Smith, W.K., and T.C. Vogelmann. 1999. Ontogenetic differences in mesophyll structure and chlorophyll distribution in Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus (Myrtaceae).  Amer. J. Bot. 86: 198-207.

Turunen, MT, TC Vogelmann, WK Smith. 1999. Effective UV-screening in Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia) cotelydons and needles sampled from field plants.  In Responses of Plant Metabolism to Air Pollution, LJ DeKok and J. Stulen, [eds.], pp. 463-480, Backhuvs Publ., Leidon, The Netherlands.  563 pp.

Schoettle, A.W. and W.K Smith. 1999.  Interrelationships between light, photosynthesis, and nitrogen in the crown of mature Pinus contorta ssp. latifoliaTree Physiology, 19:13-22.

Hättenschwiler, S. and W.K. Smith. 1999.  Natural seedling occurrence in treeline conifers: A case study from the central Rocky Mountains, USA.  Acta Oecologia 20: 219-224..

Germino, MJ and WK Smith. 1999.  Sky exposure, crown architecture, and low temperature photoinhibition in conifer seedlings at alpine treeline.  Plant, Cell & Environment 22: 407-415.

Turunen, M. TC Vogelman and WK Smith. 1999. UV-screening in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta ssp. Latifolia) cotelydons and needles. International J. Plant Sciences, 160:315-320.

Hunt, ER Jr., Kelly, RD , Fahnestock, JT, Smith, WK, Welker, JM, and WA Reiners. 2000.  Combination of remotely sensed data and net ecosystem fluxes to estimate carbon sequestration. J. Geophysical Research,

Pataki, DE, Orem, R, and WK Smith. 2000. Sap flux of co-occuring species in a western subalpine forest during seasonal drought. Ecology 81:2557-2566.

Germino, MJ and WK Smith. 2000. Differences in microsite, plant form, and low-temperature photoinhibition in alpine plants. Artic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, 32:388-396

Pataki, DE, Orem, R, and WK Smith. 2000. Sap flux of co-occuring species in a western subalpine forest during seasonal drought. Ecology 81:2557-2566.

Germino, MJ, and WK Smith. 2000. High resistance to low-temperature photoinhibition in two alpine snowbank species. Physilogia Plantarum 110:89-95.

Slaton, MR, ER Hunt and WK Smith. 2001. Estimating near-infrared leaf reflectance from leaf structural characteristics. American Journal of Botany, 88:278-284.

Hunt, ER, JT Fahnestock, RD Kelly, JM Welker, WA Reiners, and WK Smith. 2001. Carbon sequestration from remotely sensed NDVI and net ecosystem exchange. Chapter 9 in R. S. Muttiah (ed.) From Laboratory Spectroscopy to Remotely Sensed Spectra of Terrestrial Ecosystems. Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

Bynum, MR and WK Smith. 2001. Floral movements in response to thunderstorms improve reproductive effort in the alpine species Gentiana algida (Gentianaceae). American J Botany, 88:1088-1095

Hunt, Jr., ER., RD Kelly, JT Fahnestock, Miyake BA, WK. Smith, JM Welker, and WA Reiners. 2001. Assessment of ecosystem net carbon flux data by longterm changes of Landsat MSS and Landsat 7 ETM+. American Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS 2001) Proceedings of the Gateway to the New Millenium Session 106: 52-54.

Robert D. Kelly, E. Raymond Hunt, Jr., William A. Reiners, William K. Smith, Jeffrey M Welker 2001.  Correlations of Daytime Carbon Dioxide Flux with Remotely-Sensed Vegetation Index for Four Different Mountain/Plains Ecosystems.  J. Geophysial Research

Bynum, MR and WK Smith. 2001. Floral movements in response to thunderstorms improve reproductive effort in the alpine species Gentiana algida (Gentianaceae). American J Botany, In press.

Hunt, ER Jr., Kelly, RD , Fahnestock, JT, Smith, WK, Welker, JM, and WA Reiners. 2001.  Combination of remotely sensed data and net ecosystem fluxes to estimate carbon sequestration. J. Geophysical Research, accepted.

Germino, MJ and WK Smith. 2001. Relative importance of microhabitat, plant form, and photosynthetic physiology to carbon gain in two subalpine herbs. Functional Ecology 15: 243-251.

Slaton, MR, ER Hunt and WK Smith. 2001. Estimating near-infrared leaf reflectance from leaf structural characteristics. American Journal of Botany,88:278-284.

Hunt, ER, JT Fahnestock, RD Kelly, JM Welker, WA Reiners, and WK Smith. 2001. Carbon sequestration from remotely sensed NDVI and net ecosystem exchange. Chapter 9 in R. S. Muttiah (ed.) From Laboratory Spectroscopy to Remotely Sensed Spectra of Terrestrial Ecosystems. Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

Robert D. Kelly, E. Raymond Hunt, Jr., William A. Reiners, William K. Smith, Jeffrey M Welker 2002.  Relationships between daytime carbon dioxide uptake and absorbed photosynthetically active radiation for three different mountain/plains ecosystems.  J. Geophys. Res., 107: 229-236.

Germino, MJ and WK Smith. 2002. Conifer seedling distribution and survival in an alpine-treeline ecotone. Plant Ecology, 162: 157-168.

Slaton, MR and WK Smith. 2002. Mesophyll architecture and cell exposure to intercellular air space in alpine, desert, and forest species, Int. J. Plant Sci. 163: 937-948, 2002.

Hunt, Jr., ER., RD Kelly, JT Fahnestock, Miyake BA, WK. Smith, JM Welker, and WA Reiners. 2002. Assessment of ecosystem net carbon flux data by longterm changes of Landsat MSS and Landsat 7 ETM+. American Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS 2001) Proceedings of the Gateway to the New Millenium Session 106: 52-54.

Smith, WK, RD Kelly, JM Welker, JT Fahnestock, WR Reiners, and ER Hunt. 2003. Leaf-to-aircraft measurements of net CO2 exchange in a sagebrush steppe ecosystem.  J Geophys. Res., 108 (D3), 4122, DOI 101029/2002JD001512.

Smith, WK, Germino, MJ and DM Johnson. 2003. Another perspective on the altitudinal occurrence of alpine treeline. Tree Physiol 23:1101-1112.

Smith WK, CR Brodersen, TE Hancock and DM Johnson. 2004. Integrated plant temperature measurements using heat-sensitive paint and colour image analysis.  Functional Ecology 18, 148-153.

Johnson DM, MJ Germino and WK Smith (2004) Abiotic factors limiting photosynthesis in Abies lasiocarpa and Picea engelmannii seedlings below and above the alpine timberline.  Tree Physiology 24, 377-386.

Smith, WK, TM Vogelmann, C Critchley. 2004. Photosynthetic Adaptation: Chloroplast to Landscape. Springer, New York. 416 pp.

Kelly, R. D., E. R. Hunt, W. A. Reiners, W. K. Smith, and J. M. Welker. 2002. Relationships between daytime carbon dioxide uptake and absorbed photosynthetically active radiation for three    mountain/plains ecosystems. J. Geophys. Res., 107 ( D14), DOI 10.1029/2001JD001181.

Hunt, E.R. Jr., J.T. Fahnestock, R.D. Kelly, J.M. Welker, W.A. Reiners, and W.K. Smith. 2003. Carbon Sequestration from Remotely-Sensed NDVI and Net Ecosystem Exchange;. In Laboratory Spectroscopy to Remotely Sensed Spectra of Terrestrial Ecosystems (R. S. Muttiah, ed.) Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, NetherlandsHardbound, ISBN 1-4020-0753-1, October, 328 pp., Texas Agricultural Experimental Station, Texas A&M University, USA

Hunt,.E. R., R. D. Kelly, W. K. Smith, J. T. Fahnestock, and W. A. Reiners. 2003. Estimation of carbon sequestration by combining remote sensing and net ecosystem exchange data for northen mixed-grass prairie and sagebrush-steppe ecosystems. Environmental Management.

Hill, JP, CJ Willson, and WK Smith. 2004. Morphotypic differentiation in a homogeneous sagebrush steppe generates islands of reproduction. Plant Ecology 36:467-479.

Hunt ER Jr., RD Kelly, WK Smith, JT Fahnestock, JM Welker (2004) Estimation of Carbon sequestration by combining remote sensing and net ecosystem exchange data for northern mixed-grass prairie and sagebrush-steppe ecosystems.  Environmental Management Online DOI: 10.1007/s00267-003-9151-0.

Hasselquist, N.J.  M. Germino, T. McGonigle, and W. K. Smith. 2005.  Variability of Cenococcum colonization and its ecophysiological significance for young conifers at alpine-treeline. New Phytologist 165:867-873.

Abdaladze, O., Akhalkatsi, M., Nakhutsrishvili, G., Smith, W.K. (2005). Some morphological features of Betula litwinowii in the upper tree line of the Central Greater Caucasus.  Proceedings of the Georgian Academy of Sciences,  Biol. Ser. B: 3-11.

Smith WK, CR Brodersen, TE Hancock and DM Johnson (2004) Integrated plant temperature measurements using heat-sensitive paint and color image analysis. Functional Ecology 18, 148-153.

Smith, W.K., T.C. Vogelmann, and C. Critchley. 2004. Chapter 1: Introduction. In PhotosyntheticAdaptation:Chloroplast to Landscape. Springer, New York. 316pp.

Johnson DM, MJ Germino and WK Smith (2004) Abiotic factors limiting photosynthesis in Abies lasiocarpa and Picea engelmannii seedlings below and above the alpine timberline. Tree Physiology 24, 377-386.

Hunt ER Jr., RD Kelly, WK Smith, JT Fahnestock, JM Welker (2004) Estimation of Carbon sequestration by combining remote sensing and net ecosystem exchange data for northern mixed-grass prairie and sagebrush-steppe ecosystems.  Environmental Management Online DOI: 10.1007/s00267-003-9151-0.

Smith, W.K., P.S. Nobel, W.R. Reiners, T.C. Vogelmann, and C. Critchley. 2004. Chapter 11: A Synthesis. In PhotosyntheticAdaptation:Chloroplast to Landscape. Springer, New York. 316pp

Hill, JP, CJ Willson, and WK Smith. (2004). Morphotypic differentiation in a homogeneous sagebrush steppe generates islands of reproduction. Plant Ecology 36:467-479.

Johnson, D.M., Smith, W.K., Vogelmann, T.C., and C.R. Brodersen.  2005.  Leaf architecture and direction of incident light influence mesophyll fluorescence profiles.  American Journal of Botany 92: 1425-1431.

Brodersen, C.R., M.J. Germino, and W.K. Smith. 2005. Photosynthesis during an episodic drought in Abies lasiocarpa and Picea engelmannii across an alpine treeline.  Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research 38:34-41.

Johnson, D.M., W.K. Smith, and M. Silman. 2005. Climate-independent paleoaltimetry using stomatal density in fossil leaves as a proxy for CO2 partial pressure: Comment.  Geology, (Forum, Apr. 18, 2005).

Johnson, D.M., and W.K. Smith.  2005.  Refugial forests of the southern Appalachians: photosynthesis and survival in current-year Abies fraseri seedlings.  Tree Physiology 25: 1379-1387.

Ya-P. He, Yuan-W.Duan, Jian-Q. Liu and W.K.Smith. 2005. Floral closure in response to temperature and pollination in Gentiana straminea Maxim. (Gentianaceae), an alpine perennial in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Plant Systematics and Evolution. 256: 17-33.

Smith, WK., Reinhardt, KA, and DM Johnson. 2006. The Alpine Forest.  In The Encyclopedia of Ecology:, Elsevier, NY.

Johnson, DM and WK Smith. 2006. Low clouds and cloud immersion enhance photosynthesis in understory species of a Southern Appalachian spruce-fir forest (USA).  Amer J Bot. 93: 1625-1632.

Johnson, DM and WK Smith. 2006. Limitations to photosynthetic carbon gain in timberline Abies lasiocarpa seedlings during prolonged drought.  Can J Forest Res, in press.

Akhalkatsi, M, O Abdaladze, G Nakhutsrishvili1, and WK Smith2. 2006. Facilitation of seedling microsites by Rhododendron caucasicum extends the Betula litwinowii alpine treeline (Caucasus Mountains, Georgia).  Arct Antarct and Alpine Res. 38: 481-488.

Germino MJ, Hasselquist NJ, McGonigle TM, Smith WK, Sheridan P.  2006. Colonization of conifer seedling roots by fungal mycelium in an alpine-treeline ecotone: Relationships to microsite, developmental stage, and ecophysiology of seedlings.  Can J Forest Res, in press.

Smith, W.K. and D.M. Johnson. 2008. Biophysical Effects of Altitude on Plant Gas Exchange. In De la Cabrerra E, Smith WK (eds.). Perspectives in Biophysical Plant Ecophysiology,  Univ Calif Press, Los Angeles (in press).

Hughes, NM and WK Smith. 2007. Attenuation of incident light in galax urceolata (diapensiaceae): concerted influence of adaxial and abaxial anthocyanic layers on photoprotection.  Amer J Botany, in press.

Malanson GP, DR Butler, DB Fagre, SJ Walsh, DF Tomback, LD Daniels, LM Resler, WK Smith, DJ Weiss, DL Peterson, AG Bunn, CA Hiemstra, D Liptzin, PS Bourgeron, Z Shen, and CI Millar. 2007. Alpine treelines of western North America: Linking organism-to-landscape dynamics. Physical Geography 28: 378–396.

Broderson C, Germino MJ, Smith WK. 2007. Photosynthesis during an episodic drought in Abies lasiocarpa and Picea engelmannii across an alpine treeline. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research 38:34-41

Germino MJ, Hasselquist NJ, McGonigle TM, Smith WK, Sheridan P.  2007. Colonization of conifer seedling roots by fungal mycelium in an alpine-treeline ecotone: Relationships to microsite, developmental stage, and ecophysiology of seedlings. Can J Forest Res. 36: 901-909.

Hughes, NM and WK Smith. 2007. Attenuation of incident light in Galax urceolata (Diapensiaceae): concerted influence of adaxial and abaxial anthocyanic layers on photoprotection.  Amer J Botany 94:784-790.

Malanson, GP, Butler DR, Fagre DB, Walsh SJ, Tomback DF, Daniels LD, Resler LM, Smith WK, Weiss DJ, Peterson DL, Bunn AG, Hiemstra CA, Liptzin D, Bourgeron PS, Shen Z, and CI Millar. 2007. Alpine treeline of western North America: linking organism-to-landscape dynamics. Physical Geography, in press with 2007 publish date).

Smith, WK. Reinhart, K and D.M. Johnson 2007. The Alpine Forest.  In The Encyclopedia of Ecology: Elsevier, NY.

Smith, W.K. and D.M. Johnson. 2007. Biophysical Effects of Altitude on Plant Gas Exchange. In Biophysical Plant Ecology: Perspectives and Trends. Univ Calif Press, Los Angeles, CA.

Johnson DM and Smith WK. 2007. Cloud immersion alters microclimate, photosynthesis and water relations in Rhododendron catawbiense and Abies fraseri seedlings in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. Tree Physiology 28:385-392.

Smith, WK. 2007. C4 leaf curling — coupling incident light, stomatal and photosynthetic asymmetries (invited commentary). New Phytologist 177: 5-8.

Hughes NM, Smith WK. 2007. Seasonal photosynthesis and anthocyanin production in ten broadleaf evergreen species. Functional Plant Biology 34: 1072-1079.

Johnson, DM and WK Smith. 2007. Limitations to photosynthetic carbon gain in timberline Abies lasiocarpa seedlings during prolonged drought.  Can J For Res,   37: 568-579.

Hughes, N. M. and W. K. Smith. 2007. Attenuation of incident light in Galax urceolata (Diapensiaceae): Concerted influence of adaxial and abaxial anthocyanic layers on photoprotection. Amer J Botany 95:784-790.

Smith, W. K., D.M. Johnson and K.A. Reinhart. 2007. Alpine Forests. In Encyclopedia of Ecology. Elsevier Press, NY.

Hughes, N. M., C. B. Morely and W. K. Smith. 2007. Coordination of anthocyanin decline and photosynthetic maturation in juvenile leaves of three deciduous tree species. New Phytologist 175: 675-685.

Reinhardt, K and WK Smith 2007. Leaf gas exchange of understory spruce-fir saplings in relict cloud forests, southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. Tree Physiology 28:113–122.

Reinhardt K, Smith WK. 2008. Cloud immersion alters microclimate, photosynthesis, and water relations in Rhododendron catawbiense and Abies fraseri seedlings in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. Tree Physiology 28: 385-393.

Smith WK, Hughes NM. 2008. Progress in understanding plant form and photosynthesis. Castanea 74: 1-26 (invited review).

Johnson, D. M. and W. K. Smith. 2008. Cloud immersion alters microclimate, photosynthesis and water relations in Rhododendron and Abies seedlings, southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. Tree Physiol. 28: 385-392.

Smith, W.K. and D.M. Johnson. 2008. Biophysical effects of altitude on plant gas exchange. In Biophysical Plant Ecology: Perspectives and Trends. Eds. E. De la Barrera and W. K. Smith. UNAD, Lulu Publishing, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Barrera, E. D. and W. K. Smith (Eds.) 2008. Biophysical Plant Ecology: Perspectives and Trends. UNAD, Lulu Publishing, San Francisco, CA, USA

Reinhardt, K. and W. K. Smith. 2008. Leaf gas exchange of understory spruce-fir saplings in relict forests, southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. Tree Physiol. 28:113-122.

Smith, WK. 2008. C4 leaf curling—coupling incident light, stomatal and photosynthetic asymmetries. New Phytol. 177: 5-8.

Johnson, DM and WK Smith. 2008. Cloud immersion alters microclimate, photosynthesis and water relations in Rhododendron catabiense and Abies fraseri seedlings in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. Tree Physiol. 28: 385-392.

Reinhardt, K. and W. K. Smith. 2008. Leaf gas exchange of understory spruce-fir saplings in relict cloud forests, southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. Tree Physiol. 28: 113-122.

Reinhardt, K. and W. K. Smith. 2008. Impacts of cloud immersion on microclimate, photosynthesis and water relations of Abies fraseri (Pursh.) Poiret in a temperate mountain cloud forest. Oecologia 158:229-238.

Smith, W. K., M. J. Germino, D. M. Johnson and K. Reinhardt. 2008. Progress in understanding alpine treeline altitudes:  a bellwether of climate change.  Botanical Review 75: 163-190.

Malanson et al.  (14 co-authors). 2007. Alpine treelines of western North America: Linking organism-to-landscape dynamics. Physical Geography 28: 378-396.

Hughes, N. M. and W. K. Smith. 2007. Seasonal photosynthesis and anthocyanin production in 10 broadleaf evergreen species. Funct Pl Biol 34: 1072-1079.

Hughes, N. M., T. C. Vogelmann and W. K. Smith. 2007. Optical effects of abaxial anthocyanin on absorption of red wavelengths by understory species: revisiting the backscatter hypothesis. J Exp Botany. 59: 3435-3442.

Johnson, DM and WK Smith. 2007. Limitations to photosynthetic carbon gain in timberline Abies lasiocarpa seedlings during prolonged drought.  Can J For Res, 37: 568-579.

Smith, W. K., D.M. Johnson and K.A. Reinhart. 2007. Alpine Forests. In Encyclopedia of Ecology. Elsevier Press, NY.

Barrera, E. D. and W. K. Smith (Eds.) 2008. Biophysical Plant Ecology: Perspectives and Trends. UNAD, Lulu Publishing, San Francisco, CA, USA

Johnson, D. M. and W. K. Smith. 2008. Cloud immersion alters microclimate, photosynthesis and water relations in Rhododendron and Abies seedlings, southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. Tree Physiol. 28: 385-392.

Smith, WK. 2008. C4 leaf curling—coupling incident light, stomatal and photosynthetic asymmetries. New Phytol. 177: 5-8.

Johnson, DM and WK Smith. 2008. Cloud immersion alters microclimate, photosynthesis and water relations in Rhododendron catabiense and Abies fraseri seedlings in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. Tree Physiol. 28: 385-392.          

Reinhardt, K. and W. K. Smith. 2008. Leaf gas exchange of understory spruce-fir saplings in relict cloud forests, southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. Tree Physiol. 28: 113-122.

Reinhardt, K. and W. K. Smith. 2008. Impacts of cloud immersion on microclimate, photosynthesis and water relations of Abies fraseri (Pursh.) Poiret in a temperate mountain cloud forest. Oecologia 158: 229-238..

Smith, W.K. and D.M. Johnson. 2008. Biophysical effects of altitude on plant gas exchange. In Biophysical Plant Ecology: Perspectives and Trends. Eds. E. De la Barrera and W. K. Smith.

Smith, W. K., M. J. Germino, D. M. Johnson and K. Reinhardt. 2009. Progress in understanding alpine treeline altitudes: a bellwether of climate change. Botanical Review

Smith, W. K. and N. M.Hughes. 2009. Progress in coupling plant form and function, Castanea 74:1-26 (invited review).

Smith, W.K. and D.M. Johnson. 2009. Biophysical effects of altitude on plant gas exchange. In Perspectives in Biophysical Plant Ecophysiology.  Eds. E. De la Barrera and W. K. Smith. UNAD, Lulu Publishing, San Francisco, CA, USA

Smith, WK. 2009. Book Review: Manual of Leaf Architecture, Beth Ellis, et al 2009. Quarterly Review Of Biology 84: 418-19.

Hughes, NM, K Reinhardt, TS Feild, AR Gerardi, and WK Smith. 2010. Drought stress and winter anthocyanin production are not associated in angiosperm evergreen species. J Experimental Botany 61:1699-1709.

Smith, W. K. and N. M.Hughes. 2009. Progress in coupling plant form and function, Castanea 74:1-26 (invited review paper).

Reinhardt, K and WK Smith. 2009. Photosynthetic gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence under direct versus diffuse light in a needle-leaf conifer tree (Picea pungens) and broadleaf shrub (Rhododendron ponticum). Botany, in press

Barrera, E. D. and W. K. Smith (Eds.) 2009. Perspectives in Biophysical Plant Ecophysiology. UNAD, Lulu Publishing, San Francisco, CA, USA

Smith and Johnson chapter

Smith, W. K., M. J. Germino, D. M. Johnson and K. Reinhardt. 2009. The altitude of alpine treeline: a bellwether of climate change effects. Botanical Review 75: 163-190. DOI 10.1007/s12229-009-9030-3.

Reinhardt, K, DM Johnson, and WK Smith. 2009. Age-class differences in shoot photosynthesis and water relations of Fraser fir (Abies fraseri), southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. Canadian J Forest Research 39: 1-5.

Hughes, NM, WK Smith and KS Gould. 2010. Red (anthocyanic) leaf margins in Veronica spp. do not correspond to increased phenolic content. Annals of Botany 105:647-654.

Williams, AM, RA Feagin, WK Smith and NL Jackson 2009. Lessons learned from Hurricane Ike: Perspectives of the Coastal Barrier Island Network (CBIN). Shore & Beach 77: 71-76.

Feagin, R.A., Smith, W.K., Psuty, N.P., Young, D.R., Martínez, M.L., Carter, G.A., Lucas, K.L., Gibeaut, J.C., Gemma, J.N., & Koske, R.E. Barrier islands: Coupling anthropogenic stability with ecological sustainability. Journal of Coastal Research, in press.

Williams, AM, RA Feagin, WK Smith, NL Jackson. Ecosystem impacts of Hurricane Ike on Galveston Island and Bolivar Peninsula: Perspective of the Coastal Barrier Island Network (CBIN). Shore & Beach 77:1-8.

Feagin, R.A., Smith, W.K., Psuty, N.P., Young, D.R., Martínez, M.L., Carter, G.A., Lucas, K.L., Gibeaut, J.C., Gemma, J.N., & Koske, R.E. 2010. Barrier islands: Coupling anthropogenic stability with ecological sustainability. Journal of Coastal Research 26(6): 987-992.

Reinhardt, K, WK Smith and GC Carter. 2010. Clouds and cloud immersion alter photosynthetic light quality in a temperate mountain cloud forest.  Botany 88:462-470.

Williams, AM, RA Feagin, WK Smith, NL Jackson. 2011.Ecosystem impacts of Hurricane Ike on Galveston Island and Bolivar Peninsula: Perspective of the Coastal Barrier Island Network (CBIN). Shore & Beach 77:1-8.

Hughes NM, Reinhardt K, Gierardi A, Feild TS, and WK Smith. 2011. Association between winter anthocyanin production and drought stress in angiosperm evergreen species. Journal of Experimental Botany 61(6):1699-1709.

Joesting H, Sprague M and WK Smith. 2011. Seasonal and diurnal leaf orientation, bifacial sunlight incidence, and leaf structure in the sand dune herb Hydrocotyle bonariensis. Envir Experiment Botany 75: 195-203.

Hughes, NM, KO Burkey, J Cavender-Bares, WK Smith. 2012. Xanthophyll cycle pigment and antioxidant profiles of winter-red (anthocyanic) and winter-green (acyanic) angiosperm evergreen species J. Exp. Bot. 63 (5): 1895-1905. doi: 10.1093/jxb/err362

Reed, JR, WK Smith. 2012. Stomatal frequency, distribution, and needle hydrophobicity in cloud forest spruce and fir, southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. Review of Undergraduate Research, 1045: 1:11.

Smith, WK. 2012. Review of Alpine Treelines: functional ecology of the global high elevation tree limits by Ch Koerner. Ecology, in press.

Smith, WK. 2012.Four articles for Encyclopedia of Sustainability, Berkshire Scientific Publishing, Great Barrington, MA

Smith, WK and ZC Berry. 2013. Sunflecks? Tree Physiology, in press.

Berry, ZC and WK Smith. 2012. Cloud pattern and water relations in Picea rubens and Abies fraseri, southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 162:27-34.

White JC and WK Smith. 2013. Water sources in riparian trees of the southern Appalachian foothills, USA: A preliminary study with stable isotope analysis. Riparian Ecology and Conservation 1:46-52. DOI: 10.2478/remc-2013-0006

Berry, ZC, NM Hughes, WK Smith. 2013. Cloud immersion: an important water source for spruce and fir saplings in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Oecologia (published on-line Nov 26, 2013). DOI 10.1007/s00442-013-2770-0

Sanchez A,, NM Hughes, WK Smith. 2013.  Effects of cloud regime on daily and seasonal microclimate, photosynthesis and water relations in the alpine species, Caltha leptosepala and Arnica parryi, Medicine Bow Mountains, southeastern Wyoming, USA.

Smith WK, ZC Berry. 2013. Sunflecks? Tree Physiology, 33: 233-237. (Invited review)

Berry ZC, JC White, and WK Smith. 2013. Foliar uptake, carbon fluxes, and water status are affected by the timing of daily fog in saplings from a threatened cloud forest. Plant, Cell, & Environment, in review.

Jackson, NL, KF Nordstrom, RA Feagin, WK Smith. 2013. Coastal geomorphology and restoration.  Geomorphology 199: 1-7. (Lead article, as well as an invited, organizing editor for this volume)

Smith WK. 2013. A unified paradigm for the climatic elevations of global treelines. Ecology 94:767-778. (invited book review)

Berry, ZC, WK Smith. 2013. Ecophysiological importance of cloud immersion in a relic spruce-fir forest at elevational limits, southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. Oecologia 173: 637-648. DOI  10.1007/s00442-013-2653-4

Sanchez A, JM. Posada, WK Smith. 2013. Dynamic cloud regimes, incident sunlight, and leaf temperatures in Espeletia grandiflora and Chusquea tessellata, two representative species of the Andean Páramo, Colombia. Artic, Antarctic, & Alpine, in press.

Sanchez A, NM Hughes, WK Smith. 2013. Water-use efficiency declines during autumn leaf senescence in three deciduous tree species, North Carolina piedmont, USA. International Journal of Plant Biology 4: 16-23..

Berry ZC, WK Smith. 2013. Experimental cloud immersion and foliar water uptake in saplings of Abies fraseri and Picea rubens. Trees: Structure and Function 1-9 (DOI) 10.1007/s00468-013-0934-5

Sanchez A, WK Smith. 2013. Plant functional traits: Perspectives from a quantitative literature survey. Current Trends in Ecology 3: 25-51.  (Invited review)

Smith WK. 2013. A unified paradigm for the climatic elevations of global treelines. Ecology 94:777-778 (review)

Reed JE, WK Smith. 2013. Stomatal frequency, distribution, and needle hydrophobicity in cloud forest spruce and fir, southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. Review of Undergraduate Research in Agricultural and Life Sciences (RURALS) 7:1-9. (Jennifer Reed, WFU undergraduate).

Wieser G, FK Holtmeier, WK Smith. 2014. Treelines in a changing global environment. Forest Ecology in a Climate-change Future. Springer, in press (Invited chapter, delayed from a promised 2012 publication date)

Carmichael,MJ, ES Bernhardt, SL Bräuer, and WK Smith. 2014. Conduits, stimulants and synthesizers: the role of vegetation in methane flux to the atmosphere. Biogeochemistry http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10533-014-9974-1

White JC and WK Smith. 2013. Water sources in riparian trees of the southern Appalachian foothills, USA: A preliminary study with stable isotope analysis. Riparian Ecology and Conservation 1:46-52. DOI: 10.2478/remc-2013-0006

Berry, ZC, NM Hughes, WK Smith. 2013. Cloud immersion: an important water source for spruce and fir saplings in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Oecologia (published on-line Nov 26, 2013). DOI 10.1007/s00442-013-2770-0

Sanchez A,, NM Hughes, WK Smith. 2013.  Effects of cloud regime on daily and seasonal microclimate, photosynthesis and water relations in the alpine species, Caltha leptosepala and Arnica parryi, Medicine Bow Mountains, southeastern Wyoming, USA.

Smith WK, ZC Berry. 2013. Sunflecks? Tree Physiology, 33: 233-237. (Invited review)

Berry ZC, JC White, and WK Smith. 2013. Foliar uptake, carbon fluxes, and water status are affected by the timing of daily fog in saplings from a threatened cloud forest. Plant, Cell, & Environment, in review.

Jackson, NL, KF Nordstrom, RA Feagin, WK Smith. 2013. Coastal geomorphology and restoration.  Geomorphology 199: 1-7. (Lead article, as well as an invited, organizing editor for this volume)

Smith WK. 2013. A unified paradigm for the climatic elevations of global treelines. Ecology 94:767-778. (invited book review)

Berry, ZC, WK Smith. 2013. Ecophysiological importance of cloud immersion in a relic spruce-fir forest at elevational limits, southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. Oecologia 173: 637-648. DOI  10.1007/s00442-013-2653-4

Sanchez A, JM. Posada, WK Smith. 2013. Dynamic cloud regimes, incident sunlight, and leaf temperatures in Espeletia grandiflora and Chusquea tessellata, two representative species of the Andean Páramo, Colombia. Artic, Antarctic, & Alpine, in press.

Sanchez A, NM Hughes, WK Smith. 2013. Water-use efficiency declines during autumn leaf senescence in three deciduous tree species, North Carolina piedmont, USA. International Journal of Plant Biology 4: 16-23..

Berry ZC, WK Smith. 2013. Experimental cloud immersion and foliar water uptake in saplings of Abies fraseri and Picea rubens. Trees: Structure and Function 1-9 (DOI) 10.1007/s00468-013-0934-5

Sanchez A, WK Smith. 2013. Plant functional traits: Perspectives from a quantitative literature survey. Current Trends in Ecology 3: 25-51.  (Invited review)

Smith WK. A unified paradigm for the climatic elevations of global treelines. Ecology 94:767-778.

Reed JE, WK Smith. 2013. Stomatal frequency, distribution, and needle hydrophobicity in cloud forest spruce and fir, southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. Review of Undergraduate Research in Agricultural and Life Sciences (RURALS) 7:1-9. (Jennifer Reed, WFU undergraduate).

Wieser G, FK Holtmeier, WK Smith. 2012. Treelines in a changing global environment. Forest Ecology in a Climate-change Future. Springer, in press (Invited chapter, delayed from a promised 2012 publication date)

Carmichael,MJ, ES Bernhardt, SL Bräuer, and WK Smith. 2013. Conduits, stimulants and synthesizers: the role of vegetation in methane flux to the atmosphere. Biogeochemistry http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10533-014-9974-1

                                                                                    

 

RESEARCH  GRANTS  FUNDED  OR  PENDING

Smith, W.K.  1979.  Water and photosynthetic relations of two subalpine understory congeners.  Population Biology and Physiological Ecology Program, National Science Foundation, September 1, 1979, DEB-7923010 ($68,396, 2 yrs.)

Christensen, M., T.S. Moore, Jr. and W.K. Smith.  1979.  Effects of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae on plant hormone levels, water relations, and photosynthesis.  Ecology Panel, National Science Foundation, January 1, 1979, DEB-7825222 ($44,700, 2 yrs.)

Smith, W.K.  1979.  Seedling establishment in three subspecies of Artemesia.  U.S.Park Service – University of Wyoming Research Foundation, January 1, 1980, ($19,340 , 2 yrs.)

Smith, W.K.  1980.  Physiological ecology of plant succession and re-establishment in subalpine communities of the Rocky Mountains of Wyoming. U.S. Park Service -University of Wyoming Research Foundation, January 1, 1980, ($19,086, 2 yrs.)

Smith, W.K. 1982.  Physiological adaptation and reproductive effort in subalpine understory plants of the Rocky Mountains.  Population Biology/Physiological Ecology Program, Biotic Systems and Resources, NSF,DEB-8200742 ($109,722/2 yr.)

Smith, W.K.  1984.  Transpirational water loss from phreatophytic, streamside vegetation in Wyoming.  Wyoming Water Research Center, University of Wyoming, Laramie.  ($166,450, 3 yrs.)

Delaney, R. and W.K. Smith.  1984.  Water-use efficiency in leaf color variants of alfalfa.  USDA, HATCH funds for Ph.D. student, USDA-8441171, ($38,670, 3 yrs.).

Vogelmann, T.C. and W.K. Smith.  1986.  Light regimes inside leaves:  relationship to leaf anatomy and morphology.  USDA Competitive Grants, Photosynthesis Panel, USDA-86-CRCR-1-2048 ($55,690, 2yrs.).

Vogelmann, T.C., W.K. Smith and R. Middaugh.  1986.  Development of fiber optic micro-sensors for measuring light and biochemical parameters within leaves. Biological Instrumentation Program, National Science Foundation, DMB-8606824 ($161,657, 3 yrs.).

Vogelmann, T.C. and W.K. Smith.  1986.  Ecophysiological adaptations related to the light gradient inside leaves.  EPSCoR Program for Land Grant Universities, National Science Foundation, R11-8610680 ($154,320, 3 yrs.)

Smith, W.K.  1986.  Effects of Acid Mist on leaf cuticles:  Influence on water/carbon relations and mortality in high elevation conifers.  USDA Competitive Grants Program, Environmental Stress, 86-CRCR-1-2061 ($139,620, 2 yrs.).

Smith, W.K. and A.K. Knapp.  1987.  Coupling of photosynthetic and transpirational responses during sun/shade transitions.  Population Biology and Physiological Ecology Program, Biological Resources Section, National Science Foundation, BSR-8700690 ($110,816, 2 yrs.).

DeLucia, E.H. and W.K. Smith.  1987.  Environmental factors limiting photosynthesis in subalpine conifers of the Central Rocky Mountains.  USDA Competitive Grants Program, Forest Biology, 87-FSTY-9-0261 ($179,416, 3 yrs.).

Smith, W.K.  1987.  Physiological processes in subalpine tree species.  USDA, U.S.  Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Experiment Station, Cooperative Agreement No. 27-c7-417 ($43,500, 2yrs. ).

Vogelmann, T.C. and W.K. Smith.  1988.  Importance of epidermal lens cells and mesophyll anatomy to internal light gradients and photosynthesis of leaves. Physiological Processes Program, Cellular Biosciences Division, National Science Foundation, DCB-8908328 ($173,000, 2 yrs.).

Smith, W.K. and. A.K, Knapp. 1989.  Coupling of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance during rapid environmental changes.  Population Biology and Physiological Ecology Program, Biotic Systems/Resources Division, National Science Foundation, BSR-8920881 ($93,000, 2 yrs.)

Smith, W.K.  1989.  Ecophysiological significance of leaf surface wetness.  Population Biology and Physiological Ecology Program, Biological Systems/Resources Division National Science Foundation, BSR-8919228 ($70,000, 2 yrs.)

Nishio, J., W.K. Smith and T.M. Vogelmann.  1990.  A new glasshouse facility for the Department of Botany, University of Wyoming.  NSF Facilities Improvement Program, RFO 9021761 ($1.6 million).

Smith, W.K. and T.M. Hinkley.  1991.  Physiological ecology of coniferous forests :A modern synthesis. Jackson Hole, Wyoming, Sept. 16-19, 1991.  Funded partially by the DOE, U.S. Forest Service, NASA, U.S. Park Service, Nat. Paper Council for Stream and Air Improvement, and the U.S. EPA for a total of $44,400.

Smith, W.K.  1991.  Direct coupling of atmospheric warming to plant ecology:  Nocturnal radiation exchange, frost occurrence, and plant distribution patterns.  NASA Innovative Research Program, IRP 91-181($ 272,000 / 3 yrs.)

Vogelmann, T.C. and W.K. Smith.  1991.  Leaf structural properties that influence photosynthesis: Interactions between gradients of light, CO2, and photosynthetic capacity.  Physiological Processes Program, Biotic Systems and Resources, NSF.  $256,908/3 yrs.

Smith, W.K. and D.T. Bell.  1992.  A model of leaf structure/function: photosynthetic symmetry in plant leaves.  International Studies Program, The National Science Foundation ($34,740 for six months, Dec. 1 to June 1, 1992-3).

Smith, W.K.  1993.  Early detection and monitoring of atmospheric warming.  Committee on Climate Change, DOE, Batelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories (34,500/ 1 yr.)

Smith, W.K., T.M. Vogelmann, and G.C. Carter.  1994.  Remote detection of plant stress using narrow‑band spectroradiometry.  NASA‑EPSCOR. ($75,000/ 1 yr.)

Smith, W.K. and T.C. Vogelmann. 1994-5. Remote sensing of plant stress, NASA-EPSCOR, $85,000/1yr

Vogelmann, T.C. and W.K. Smith. Leaf structural properties that influence photosynthesis: Interactions       between gradients of light, C02, and photosynthetic capacity. NSF Integrative Plant Biology, $85,000.

Jenkins, R.A., Vogelmann, T.C. Smith, W.K. and five other co-PIs, Acquisition of a university confocal laser               scanning microscope system, Instrumentation and Facilities Improvement Program, NSF, $128,710, 1995‑96.

Del Rio, C.M., W. K. Smith, 5 Co-PI’s 1996. A CHNS Analyzer for the University of Wyoming. NSF Instrumentation Improvement Program, $65,000.

Smith, W.K. 1992-5.  Radiational frost effects on growth season length in the subalpine: A direct coupling between plant ecology and atmospheric warming. NASA Innovative Grants Program, $246,000/ 3 yrs.

Smith, W.K.  1996. Plant responses to multiple stress in the alpine timberline ecotone: Low temperature photoinhibition and global climate change. NSF, Evolutionary and Ecological Physiology Program.  $225,000/2 yrs.

Vogelmann, TC and WK Smith. 1997. The snow alga Clamydamona nivalis : photosynthesis under extremes of high light, UV-B radiation, and low temperature.  Life In Extreme Environments (LEXEN) Program, NSF, 225,015/3 yrs (IBN-9714268).

Smith, WK and TC Vogelmann.  1997.  Intergrating multiple stress factors in the alpine timberline ecotone: Direct linkage between adaptive biology and global change.  Ecological and Evolutionary Physiology Program, NSF, 135,000/2 yrs (IBN-9741500)

Smith, WK, RD Kelly, JM Welker, ER Hunt, WA Reiners.  1997.  Quantification of carbon sources and sinks for northern plains and mountain landscapes using simultaneous aircraft, tower, and leaf measurements of CO2 and H2O vapor flux, and stable isotopes.  Joint Program on Terrestrial Ecology and Global Change (TECO), NSF, 1.2 million/3 yrs (IBN-9727796).

JM Welker. Smith, WK and 4 other Co’PI’s. 1998.  Acqusition of a stable isotope facility to study terrestrial processes and their interaction with climate and the environment.  Major Research Instrumentation Program, National Science Foundation. 678,708/ 3 yrs.

Smith, WK and TC Vogelmann. 2001. Alpine Treeline Stability in a Changing Global Environment: Mechanisms of Conifer Tree Seedling Establishment.  Evolutionary and Ecological Physiology Program, National Science Foundation. Funded for $305,401/3 yrs.

Smith, WK, TC Vogelmann, and C Critchley. 2001. Workshop/Edited Book Proposal: Scaling Photosynthesis From The Chloroplast To The Landscape.  12th International Congress On Photosynthesis, Brisbane, Australia, August 18-22, 2001  Proposal submitted to NSF, USDA, and DOE requesting partial funding from each for a total of $35,000 (All three grants funded).

Smith, W. K. and Georgi Nakhutsrishvili.  2002. Mechanisms of Upper Treeline Stability: Reproductive Effort, Seed Germination, and Seedling Survival in Betula litwinowii of the Caucasian Mountains, Georgia (FSU)., George Institute of Botany, Georgia Academy of Science and Wake Forest University. International Science Cooperative Program, National Science Foundation.($35,000/yr for 3 yrs)

Smith, WK. 2002. Alpine treeline stability in a changing global environment. Ecology and Evolutionary Physiology program, NSF. $258.000/3 years.

Smith, WK and TC Vogelmann. 2001. Alpine Treeline Stability in a Changing Global Environment: Mechanisms of Conifer Tree Seedling Establishment.  Evolutionary and Ecological Physiology, National Science Foundation.  $305,401/3 yrs.

Smith, WK, TC Vogelmann, and C Critchley. 2001. Workshop/Edited Book Proposal: Scaling Photosynthesis From The Chloroplast To The Landscape.  12th International Congress On Photosynthesis, Brisbane, Australia, August 18-22, 2001.  NSF, USDA, and DOE partial funding from each for a total of $35,000.

Smith, W. K. and Georgi Nakhutsrishvili.  2002. Mechanisms of Upper Treeline Stability: Reproductive Effort, Seed Germination, and Seedling Survival in Betula litwinowii of the Caucasian Mountains, Georgia (FSU)., George Institute of Botany, Georgia Academy of Science and Wake Forest University. International Science Cooperative Program, National Science Foundation. (128,000/3 yrs.)

Smith, WK. 2004. Episodic versus daily stress effects on plant resource acquisition, survival, and fitness at the land-sea interface. NC Sea Grant Program, $5,792/one year.

Smith, WK. 2004. Mechanisms of Upper Treeline Stability. NSF, Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program, $5,679/one year (supplement).

Smith, WK. 2005. Alpine Treeline stability in a changing global environment: Mechanisms of conifer tree seedling establishment. Physiological and Structural Systems, NSF, 287,000/3 yrs

Smith, W.K. 2005. Research Experiences for K-12 Teachers Program (RET supplement), Proprosal #0513604 funded for $9,904/year.

Smith, W. K. 2004. Ecological facilitation by Rhododendron caucasicum extends the Betula litwinowii alpine treeline, Caucasus Mountains of Georgia. George Institute of Botany, Georgia Academy of Science and Wake Forest University, US Civilian Research and Development Foundation (CRDF) and (GRDF), funded for $42,000/year.

Smith, WK. 2004-5, Stabilization of Barrier Islands and the Role of Primary Dune Colonizers. NC Sea Grant, NOAA (13,788/ 1yr).

McCauley, A.K. 2005 (co-PI with others). Addition of a steomicroscope to the Department of Biology, Wake Forest University, Microscopy Laboratory.  NSF, Instrumentation and Major Equipment Program. $74,540.

Smith, W. K. 2005. Research Experiences for K-12 Teachers, National Science Foundation $9,874/yr (funded)

Smith, W. K. 2005.NSF, Partnerships for International Research and Education, Office of International Science and Engineering, Doctoral Dissertation Enhancement Program, $30,000/2 yrs.

Smith, WK. 2005. Episodic versus daily stress effects on plant resource acquisition, survival,and fitness at the land-sea interface. NC Sea Grant Program, funded for $4,792/one year.

Smith, WK. 2006-2008. Sustaining Relic Spruce-fir Forests of the Southern Appalachian Mountains.  Hewlett Foundation and National Commission on Energy Policy, Washington, DC. $50,000/2 yrs.

Smith WK, Feagin R, Jackson NL. 2007-2012. Sustaining barrier island ecosystems under global change, Coastal Barrier Island network. NSF, Research Coordination Networks, $477,000 / 5 yrs.

Jackson, NL, Feagin, RL, and WK Smith. 44th Symposium on Coastal Geoscience, 2013. Binghamton, NJ, USA.

 

(not listed:  22 smaller grants totaling $ 161,811, plus 14 additional NSF grants supporting undergraduate and high school teachers [Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) and Research Experiences for Teachers (RET) Program, NSF].

 

PARTIALLY-REFEREED PUBLICATIONS

Smith, WK, JR Foster and DH Knight.  1986. Transpirational water loss from streamside vegetation in Wyoming: High elevation source streams and alluvial/irrigation channels of valleys. Project #5-38679, Wyoming Water Research Center, Laramie, WY. Pp 1-12.

Carter, GA, JL Hadley, WK Smith and DH Knight. 1983. Summer water relations of Abies lasiocarpa, Picea engelmannii, and Pinus contorta at higher and lower elevations in southeastern Wyoming. Wyoming Water Research Center, Report A-035-WYO US Dept Interior. Pp 1-20.

 

PUBLISHED  BOOK  REVIEWS                         

Review of Physiological and Environmental Plant Physiology by P.S. Nobel, Academic Press, 635 pp.  Bulletin of the American Botanical Society, November, 1991.

 

Smith WK. 2013. A unified paradigm for the climatic elevations of global treelines. Ecology 94:767-778. (invited book review)

 

                          

NONSCIENTIFIC  PUBLICATIONS

Smith, W.K.  1979.  Flora of a parched land.  Wyoming Wildlife Magazine, January,  Wyming Game and Fish Commission, pp. 28-32.

 

(twelve other short articles for various newspapers or periodicals ( 1981-present) regarding plant adaptations to harsh and extreme environments)

 

INVITED  SEMINARS  AND  PRESENTATIONS           

  1. Plant transpiration and photosynthesis at high elevations. Interdepartmental Seminar Series, Department of Botany, University of Chicago .
  2. Water and photosynthetic relations of understory plants in the Rocky Mountains of Wyoming. Biology Departmental Seminar, Department of Biology, Harvard University, November 27, 1979.
  3. Water stress and photosynthesis under variable light regimes in the subalpine understory. Department of Biology, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA
  4. Phenotypic plasticity and water use efficiency in understory plants of the Rocky Mountains. Guest Speaker, Annual Meetings of the Society of Plant Physiologists, University of Hawaii, May 6, 1983.
  5. Environmental factors limiting summer leaf conductance patterns in Rocky Mountain conifers. Invited paper presented to the IUFRO meetings (Subalpine Workshop:  Management and Tending of Subalpine Forests) in Zurich, Switzerland, September 2-12, 1984.
  6. Ecophysiological adaptations enhancing carbon gain and water conservation in alpine and subalpine plants. Presented October 10, 1986, to the Department of Botany, Colorado State University.
  7. Ecophysiological adaptations enhancing carbon gain and water conservation in alpine and subalpine plants. Department of Botany, University of Georgia, Athens.
  8. Stomatal and photosynthetic responses to rapid environmental changes in alpine/subalpine habitats. Presented June 29, 1987 to the Department of Biology, University of Pittsburgh, PA.
  9. Non-steady state responses in plants to rapid environmental changes. Presented (December 27, 1987 to the Desert Research Institute, University of Nevada, Reno.
  10. Environmental constraints on carbon gain in alpine/subalpine plants. Presented May 14, 1989, Ecological Seminar Series, Department of Population and Organism Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO.  May 14, 1989.
  11. Light and canopy interactions: Effects on carbon gain in alpine and subalpine plants.  Ecosystems Northwest Seminar Program: Canopy Processes, University of Washington, Seattle, Nov. 20, 1991.
  12. Leaf structural adaptations for enhanced CO2exchange. Department of Botany, University of Western Australia,
  13. Scaling light interception efficiency for photosynthesis from the leaf interior to the canopy.  Plant and Soil sciences Department, University of Western Australia, WA (also given in New Zealand, University of Canterbury, Christchurch; and one in own department, UW)
  14. Environmental limitations to photosynthesis in the alpine/subalpine: Implications of global climate change. Division of Forest Resources, CSIRO, Perth, Western Australia.
  15. Scaling light and temperature effects on conifer photosynthesis from the leaf to the canopy. Ministry of Forestry, Cantebury University, Christchurch, New Zealand.
  16. Radiational frosts and climate change. Department of Biology, University of Maryland.
  17. Limitations to photosynthesis due to radiational frosts and dewfall, high irradiance, and UV-B exposure in high elevation species. Department of Plant Sciences, University of Illinois.
  18. Low temperature photoinhibition in alpine plants: linkages to global climate change. Department of Biology, University of Nevada at Las Vegas.
  19. Adaptation to extreme environments: Form versus physiology. Department of Biology, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff.
  20. Adaptation to multiple stress factors in plants: Scaling from the cell to the canopy. Department of Biology, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem.
  21. Physiological Ecology: a science for studying organisms or ecosystems. Invited speaker (three total) for Perspectives in Biological Sciences Symposium, Dept. Biology, Wake Forest University.
  22. Plant Adaptations to extreme environments from the cell to the canopy. Invited speaker (three invited speakers) for Perspectives in Biological Sciences Symposium, Dept. Biology, Wake Forest University.
  23. Low temperature as an ecological factor and implications for global climate change. Workshop: “The Impact of Global Warming on the Frequency and Intensity of Climatic Extremes”, Aspen Institute for Global Change, Aspen, CO.
  24. Scaling photosynthetic adaptations in form and function from the leaf to the landscape. Department of Biology, Duke University. Topics in Ecology Seminar Program.

Photosynthetic adaptations from inside the leaf to the ecosystem.  Graduate Program in Ecology Seminar Series, Duke University, Durham, NC.

  1. Plenary Speaker, Interactive effects of microsite, plant form, and photosynthetic physiology to low temperature photoinhibition In alpiune plants., Third Conference on the Biochemistry, Physiology, Ecology, and Population Biology of Artic and Alpine Plants, Villar d’Arene- Hautes-Alpine, Grenoble, France. Aug. 31- Sept 3.
  2. Western Carolina University, Dept of Biology
  3. Department of Plant Science, University of Illinois, Urbana.
  4. Methodist College,
  5. Appalachian State University, NC
  6. NC Baptist College, NC
  7. Brevard College, NV
  8. Plenary Speaker, 16th Annual Forestry Science Workshop, Washington State University, Pullmann, WA, June 18-2
  9. Virginia Commonwealth University (Inauguration Speaker for new Biol. Sciences Bldg Dedication)
  10. Merging paleobotanical and ecophysiological approaches for understanding evolution, Ecological Society of America meetings, July4-10, University of Arizona, Tucson.
  11. Jones Ecological Center, GA
  12. Brown University, RI
  13. Dept Biology, Appl State Univ, Boone. NC
  14. Georgia Institute of Botany, Tibilisi, Republic of Georgia (FSU).
  15. Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science in Japan, Hakaido University (3 seminars)
  16. Climate Change Symposium, 13th International Photosynthesis Congress, Montreal Canada. Sept. 2004
  17. Dept of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Idaho State Univ.
  18. Symposium on Treeline Ecology, USGS and US Forest Service, Glacier, MT
  19. North Carolina State University, Dept of Botany
  20. Symposium on Sea Level Rise, Texas A&M Univ
  21. Workshop on Climate Change, Hewlett Foundation/Nat Commission on Energy Policy, Washington, DC
  22. Invited speaker, Department of Plant Sciences, Univ Vermont
  23. UNC Charlotte, Dept of Biology Seminar Series
  24. Bennet College, Winston-Salem, NC

 

  1. Piedmont Club of NC

2009 Lenoir-Rhyne College, Dept of Bology

  1. Department of Biology, Idaho State University

(11 various interviews for television and radio stations regarding various topics such as why leaves change color in the fall or the fate of barrier island ecosystems in a warming climate.

 

WORKSHOPS, PANELS, and SYMPOSIA

Smith, W.K. and B.F. Chabot.  1981.  Department of Botany, University of Wyoming and Section of Ecology and Systematics, Cornell University.  Co-sponsors, “Ecology of Forest Understory Species” sponsored by the Botanical Society of America and the Ecological Society of America, American Institute of Biological Sciences meetings, Indiana University, Bloomington, August 1981.

Invited participant, USA-Australian Workshop on Stomatal Function, East-West Center, University of Hawaii, April 11-15, 1983.

Invited Panel Member, Symposium on Current Methods of Photosynthetic Measurements in Plant Ecophysiological Research, American Institute of Biological Science meetings, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, August 7 11, 1983.  (With W. Oechel, San Diego State University, and B. Strain, Duke University.)

Invited participant: Establishment and Tending of Subalpine Forests (H. Turner and W. Tranquillini, organizers) Zurich, Switzerland, September 2 -12, 1984.

Invited to be organizer for panel on water relations, workshop on tree ecophysiology, CRC Press volume, Techniques and Methodology in Forest Tree Ecophysiology.  Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, August 17-19, 1986.

Invited participant, International Workshop on “Closure of the Carbon, Water, and Nutrient Cycles in Temperate Forests”.  Sponsored by the USDA, U.S. Forest Service, The National Science Foundation, and the Electric Power Research Institute.  (M.R. Kaufmann and J.J. Landsberg, organizers) Granby, Colorado, June 10-15, 1990.

Primary organizer for international workshop “Physiological Ecology of Coniferous Forest:  A Contemporary Synthesis”  held at the UW/National Park Service Research Center, Jackson Hole, WY., Sept. 16-19, 1991 (Co-organizer Dr. T.M. Hinckley, University of Washington, Seattle.)

Invited participant, Subcommittee for the Review of the Program for Ecosystem Research, Environmental Sciences Division, Department of Energy, San Diego, CA., June 6-9, 1994.

Invited participant, Committee on Global Climate Change: Early Detection Methodology, Batelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Department of Energy, July, Sept. and Nov. meetings, 1994.

Invited participant and organizer,  National EPSCoR Meeting, Jackson, WY., 1995

Invited participant, workshop for the National Institute for Global Environmental Change, Great Plains Regional Center, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Sept. 26-29. 1995.

Invited participant: Temperature effects of global change and climate variability, Aspen Institute for Global Change, Aspen, Colorado, August 9-22, 1999

Chair, Ozone effects on forest decline in the Eastern Forests, USA, Air Pollution Conference, Duke University, Durham, NC.  November 27-30, 1999.

Invited participant, The biochemistry, physiology, and population biology of arctic and alpine plants. Lauteret Alpine Institute, Villar d’ Arene, Hautess-Alpes, France, Aug. 31-Sept. 2, 2000.

Lead Organizer for workshop and symposium “Leaf Form/Function as Related to Photosynthetic Performance”. Ecological Society of America, Summer, 2001

Lead Organizer for workshop to be held as a satellite meeting for the 12th International Congress on Photosynthesis (Scaling Photosynthesis from the Chloroplast to the Landscape), Brisbane, Australia, August 17-24, 2001.  (Meeting in support of edited book, Academic Press, Ecological Studies Series).

Invited participant, Alpine Treeline Ecosystems, 2006 USGS and US Forest Service, Glacier, MT.

Lead Organizer for Workshop Sustaining Barrier Island Ecosystems and Global Change, 2006, NSF. April 12-15, Univ Southern Mississippi, Gulfport, MS

Invited Participant: Workshop on Global Climate Change. 2007. Hewlett Foundation/Nat Commission on Energy Policy,    Washington, DC

Lead Organizer, Coastal Barrier Island Network, Galveston, TX, Jan. 2009.

Co-organizer, 44th Symposium on Coastal Geomorphology, 2013, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Binghamton, NJ, USA

Co-organizer, Synthesis Workshop on the Coupling of Vegetation and Geomorphology in Barrier Islands. 2014. South Padre Island, TX

 

CO-AUTHORED  PRESENTATIONS  BY  COLLEAGUES  AND  STUDENTS (1978-1988 only)

Young, D.R. and W.K. Smith.  1978.  Microhabitat variation and ecophysiological differences in Arnica cordifolia.  Paper presented to the Physiological Ecology Section of the Ecological Society of America meetings, August 20-25, 1978, Athens, GA.

Young, D.R. and W.K. Smith.  1979.  Influence of sunflecks on the water relations for two subalpine understory congeners.  Paper presented to the SWARM Division of the AAAS, April 24-28, 1979, Durango, CO.

Geller, G.N. and W.K. Smith.  1979.  Plant transpiration at high elevation:  Theory and field measurements, comparisons with desert plants.  Paper presented to the SWARM Division of the AAAS, April 24-28, 1979, Durango, CO.

Young, D.R. and W.K. Smith.  1979.  Influence of sunflecks on leaf structure , water, and photosynthetic relations of Arnica cordifolia.  Paper Presented to the Physiological Ecology Section of the Ecological Society of America, August 12-17, 1979  Stillwater, OK.

Allen, M.F., P.D. Stahl and W.K. Smith.  1979.  Increased transpiration and photosynthetic rates in Bouteloua gracilis infected with Glomus fasiculatus. Paper presented to the N. Amer. Conference on Mycorrhizae, June 24-27, 1979, Fort Collins, CO.

Allen, M.F., W.K. Smith and M. Christensen.  1979.  Comparative photosynthetic rates and water relations of Bouteloua gracilis with and without vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae.  Paper presented to the AIBS, Mycological Society, August 13-19, 1979, Stillwater, OK.

Young, D.R. and W.K. Smith.  1980.  Optimal leaf sizes for minimizing transpiration indifferent habitats.  Paper presented to the SWARM Division of the AAAS, April 9-14, 1980, Las Vegas, NV.

Geller, G.N. and W.K. Smith.  1980.  Optimal leaf sizes for minimizing transpiration in different habitats.  Paper presented to the SWARM Division of the AAAS, April 9-14, 1980, Las Vegas, NV.

Young, D.R. and W.K. Smith.  1980.  A simulation model for predicting water and photosynthetic relations of a subalpine, understory species.  Paper presented to the Physiological Ecology Section of the Ecological Society of America meetings, August 4-9, 1980, Tuscon, AZ.

Geller, G.N. and W.K. Smith.  1980.  The influence of leaf size on transpiration at high elevations in Wyoming.  Paper presented to the Physiological Ecology Section of the Ecological Society of America Meetings, August 4-9, 1980, Tucson, AZ.

Allen, M.F., T.S. Moore, Jr., W.K. Smith and M. Christensen.  1980.  The influence of VA mycorrhizae on ecophysiological characteristics and phytohormones of Bouteloua gracilis.  Paper presented to the Mycological Society of America Meetings, August 4-9, 1980, Tucson, AZ.

Young, D.R. and W.K Smith.  1981.  The importance of cloudcover to the water and photosynthetic relations of three understory species.  Paper presented to the Botanical Sciences Section, Southwestern and Rocky Mountain Division AAAS meetings, April 22-25, 1981, University of Northern Colorado, Greeley.

Knapp, A.K. and W.K. Smith.  1981.  Seasonal and diurnal water relations of three subalpine conifers in understory and open environments.  Paper presented to the AAAS meetings, April 22-25, 1981, University of Northern Colorado, Greeley. (Student Paper Award in the Botanical Sciences Section.)

Knapp, A.K. and W.K. Smith.  1981.  Water relations and succession in Wyoming conifers.  Paper presented to the Ecological Society of America of AIBS meetings, August 8-12, 1981, Indiana University, Bloomington.

Hadley, J.L and W.K Smith.  1981.  Influence of winter needle classification on krummholz growth forms near timberline in Wyoming.  Paper presented to the Ecological Society of America, AIBS meetings, August 8-12, 1981, Indiana University, Bloomington.

Young, D.R.  1981.,  Simulations of optimal growth and reproductive patterns in western coniferous forests.  Symposium entitled “Ecology of Forest Understory Plants” sponsored by the Botanical Society of America, AIBS meetings, August 8-12, 1981, Indiana University, Bloomington.

Young, D.R. and W.K. Smith.  1982.  Intraspecific variation in the reproductive effort to the understory herb, Arnica cordifolia.  Paper presented to the Colorado-Wyoming Academy of Science, April 23-24, 1982, Fort Collins, CO.

Hadley, J.L. and W.K. Smith.  1982.  Winter wind exposure and water loss of Engelmann spruce at timberline in southeastern Wyoming.  Paper presented to the Colorado-Wyoming Academy of Sciences, Botanical Sciences Section, April 23-24, 1982, Fort Collins, CO. (Student Paper Award in Biological Sciences.)

Young, D.R. and W.K. Smith.  1981.  The effect of cloudcover on the light regime, Photosynthesis, and water relations of the understory species Arnica latifolia. AIBS meetings, Ecological Society of America, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA.

Hadley, J.L. and W.K. Smith.  1982.  Seasonal influence of wind on conifer needle disiccation and death near timberline in Wyoming.  AIBS meetings, Ecological Society of America, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA.

Hadley, J.L. and W.K. Smith.  1983.  Winter wind exposure and water potential for timberline conifers in Wyoming.  AIBS meetings, Ecological Society of America, August 7-11, 1983, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks.

Cater, G.A., J.L. Hadley, W.K. Smith and D.H. Knight.  1983.  Summer water relations of three southeastern Wyoming conifers at high and low elevation sites.  AIBS meetings, Ecological Society of America, August 7-11, 1983, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks.

McNaughton, G.M. and W.K. Smith.  1984.  Environmental and plant parameters leading to seasonal stomatal closure in Fall in six conifer species of the central Rocky Mountains.  Northwest Science Forest Conference, March 24-28, 1984, University of Montana, Missoula.

Hadley, J.L. and W.K. Smith.  1984.  Microclimate modification in krummholz growth forms:  influence on survival of timberline conifers.  Paper presented at AIBS meetings, Ecological Section, August 5-9, 19084, Colorado State University, Fort Collins.

Carter, G.A. and W.K. Smith.  1984.  Influence of needle and shoot orientation on photosynthesis in Picea engelmannii, Abies lasiocarpa, and Pinus contorta saplings in southeastern Wyoming.  Paper presented to the AIBS meetings, Ecology Section, August 5-9, 1984, Colorado State University, Fort Collins.

Huang, Ruey-Shyang, W.K. Smith and R.M. Yost.  1984.  Influence of VA-mycorrhiza on growth, nutrient absorption, and water relations in Leucaena leucocephala.  4th International Conference on Mycorrhizae, June 18-24, 1984, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR.

Carter, G.A. and W.K. Smith.  1985.  Effects of photosynthesis and water relations on subalpine forest development.  Paper presented to the Ecological Society of America meetings, June 17-21, 1985, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.

Foster, J.R. and W.K. Smith.  1986.  Influence of stomatal distribution on transpiration.  Paper presented to the ESA meetings, August 11-16, 1986, Syracuse University, Syarcuse, NY.

Estill, D.A., R.L. Delaney and W.K. Smith.  1986  Photosynthetic and water relations of leaf size variants in alfalfa.  Presented to the Western Society of Crop Science, June 1419, 1986, Moscow, ID.

Foster, J.R. and W.K. Smith.  1987.  Daily and seasonal water relations of montane phreatophytes in the central Rocky Mountains.  Presented to the symposium Management of Subalpine Forests, USDA, July 6-10, 1987, Silver Creek, CO.

Hadley, J.L. and W.K. Smith.  1987.  Effects of Acid mist on needle physiology and mortality in timberline conifers.  Presented to the symposium Management of Subalpine Forests, USDA, July 6-10, 1987, Silver Creek, CO.

Knapp, A.K. and W.K. Smith.  1987.  Effects of cloud pattern on carbon and water relations in subalpine conifers.  Management of Subalpine Forests Workshop, USDA/USFS, July 6-10, 1987, Silver Creek, CO.

McClean, T.M., T.C. Vogelmann, A.K. Knapp and W.K. Smith.  1987.  Measurement of light within thin sections of plant tissue using fiber optics.  Presented to the annual meetings of the Botanical Society of America, August 9-13, 1987, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.  (Student Paper Award, Physiology Section).

Knapp, A.K., T.C. Vogelmann, T.M. McClean and W.K. Smith.  1987.  Measurement of light within thin sections of plant tissue using fiber optics.  Presented to the annual meetings of the Botanical Society of America, August 9-13, 1987, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

Knapp, A.K. and W.K. Smith.  1988.  Non-steady state coupling of photosynthesis and stomatal behavior during variable sunlight.  Presented to the annual meetings of the Ecological Society of America, AIBS meetings, University of California, Davis.  August 14-18, 1988.

McClean, T.M. and W.K. Smith.  1988.  Adaptive relationship between leaf water repellancy, stomatal distribution, and photosynthetic gas exchange.  Presented to the Ecological Society of America, AIBS meetings, University of California, Davis.  August 14-18, 1988.

Brown, L.A., A.K. Knapp, W.K. Smith and T.C. Vogelmann.  1988.  Distribution of light within sun leaves of Saxifraga rhomboidea irradiated on upper and lower surfaces.  Presented to the Botanical Society of America, AIBS meetings, University of California, Davis.  August 14-18, 1988.

 

[Since 1988, an additional 79 co-authored presentations have been presented by students or colleagues in the U.S. and abroad.  Thirteen of these have received Best Student Paper or Poster Awards in four different scientific societies (one was featured in BioScience, 1995– Michael Byum’s MS work on floral movements in the alpine Gentian).  Most recently, WFU undergraduate students Craig Brodersen and Scott Graham presented posters at the Assoc. Southeastern Biologists meeting at Appalachian State University, Boone, NC (2002).  The latter poster received an Acknowledgement Award (only three total awards given out of 52 competitors).  Tom Hancock (PhD student) also received a graduate research award (only two awarded) from the ASB at the same meetings. Also, Dan Johnson was awarded the best student paper in physiology at the Amer Botanical Society meetings at Univ. Texas, Austin, summer 2005, as well as the Odum Award for best paper in ecology at the Southeastern Biology Assoociation meetings in Nashville, TN (2006). Nicole Hughes received the following awards: Gordon A. Melson Award for Outstanding PhD Student in the Wake Forest Graduate School of Arts and Sciences Wake Forest University (2009); Physiological Section Award for Best Poster- 2008 Botanical Society of America meeting; Elton C. Cocke Award for Outstanding Graduate Student in Biology
Wake Forest University (2008); Best Student Paper Presentation In Botany- Awarded by the Southeastern Chapter of the Botanical Society of America at the 2008 meeting of the Association of Southeastern Biologists.  Best Student Poster In Botany- Awarded by the Southeastern Chapter of the Botanical Society of America at the 2008 meeting of the Association of Southeastern Biologists;  Euguene P. Odum Award for Best Student Paper Presentation in Ecology (runner-up) – Awarded by the Southeastern Chapter of the Ecological Society of America at the 2008 meeting of the Association of Southeastern Biologists;  Quarterman-Catherine Keever Award for best Student Poster in Ecology – Awarded by the Southeastern Chapter of the Ecological Society of America at the 2008 meeting of the Association of Southeastern Biologists; Billings Award for Best Ecophysiological Paper Presentation (runner-up) – Awarded by the Ecological Society of America at the 2007 meetin;. Conant Award for Botanical Imaging (third place)– Awarded by the Botanical Society of America at the 2007 meetin;. Eugene P. Odum Award for Best Student Paper in Ecology – Awarded by the Southeastern Chapter of the Ecological Society of America at the 2004 meeting of the Association of Southeastern Biologists.

 

GRADUATE  STUDENTS  SUPERVISED

Graduated

Donald R. Young.  M.S.  1979, Ph.D.  1982.   Professor and Head, Dept. of Biology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond.

Michael F. Allen.  Ph.D.  1980.  Professor, Dept. of Biology, Calif. State, University at San Diego (co-advised with Dr. Martha Christensen).

Gary N. Geller.  M.S.  1980.  Ph.D, University of California, 1985; Currently Associate Director, Earth Systems Division, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Calif. Inst. Technology, Pasadena, CA.

Peter D. Stahl.  M.S.  1981, Ph.D.  1989.  Assoc Prof, U Wyoming (co-advised with M. Christensen).

Geoffrey N. McNaughton M.S. 1985.  In Situ Environmental Laboratories, University of Washington, Seattle.

Gregory A. Carter.  Ph.D. 1986.  Research Scientist, NASA, Birmingham, Alabama; Assoc Prof, Geospatial Center, U South Mississippi.

Julian L. Hadley, Ph.D.  1986 (NSF Predoctoral Fellowship).  Research Professor, Harvard Forest, Harvard University, Cambridge, MS.

Alan K. Knapp.  M.S. 1981, Ph.D. 1989.  Professor, Department of Biological Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins.

Kristine Estill.  M.S. 1990.  Ph.D. Student, University of Arizona.

Anna W. Schoettle, Ph.D.  1991. Research Scientist, U.S. Forest Service, Fort Collins, Colorado.

Muyi Cui, Ph. D. 1991.Owner, Software Processes Inc,, Salt Lake City, UT.

Erik Hammerlynck, M.S. 1992. PhD, Kansas State University, Asst Prof., Rutgers University

Carol Brewer, Ph. D. 1993. Assoc. Professor, Division of Biological Sciences, University of Montana, Missoula.

Mark T. Hemmerlien, M.S. 1994. Research Co-ordinator, Environmental Division, State of Connecticut.

Kristen Mitchel, M.S.  1994.  Research Scientist,  Linear Laboratories, Salt Lake, City, UT; Univ of Washington Law School graduate, Seattle, WA

Amy S, Mueller, M.S. 1995 (NSF Predoctoral Fellowship).  Teaching Fellow, Polytechnical Institute, Equito, Ecuador

Dean N. Jordan, Ph.D.  1995. (DOE Predoctoral Fellowship),  Project Director, Terrestrial Ecology and Global Change Program ,University of Nevada.

Michael R. Bynum, M.S. 1995.  Teaching Faculty, Chadron State Univ, Chadron, NE

Catie A. Campbell, M.S. 1996; B.A. 1991, Dartmouth College, Nature Conservancy, Houston TX

Matthew J. Germino, M.S. 1996; B.S. 1994, University of Massachusetts, Amherst

Michele Slaton, M.S. 1998; B.S. 1996, University of Idaho, Moscow;

Matthew J. Germino (NASA Predoctoral Fellowship)- Associate Professor, Idaho State Univ ; Senior Research Leader, USGS, Boise, ID

Shelley M. James, PhD student (Australia), M.S. University of Western Australia, Perth

Michele Slaton, PhD  2001, Univ Wyoming, Leaturer, Western State College, CO; US Forest Service, White Mountain Research Station, Big Pine, CA

Jerry H. Winslow, PhD 1999, Univ Wyoming, Associate Professor, Texas A.M Univ.

Cynthia Willson, MS 1999, Univ. Wyoming (NSF Graduate Fellowship), PhD student, Duke University, now a physician with a private practice.

Pat Morgan, MS Univ. Wyoming 1999; PhD student Univ Vermont, Postdoc, NCSU

Judsen Hill,  MS 2000. Wake Forest University; PhD , Idaho State University

Craig Brodersen MS 2004. Wake Forest Univ, PhD, Univ Vermont; Assistant Prof, Univ Florida; Assist Prof, Yale University, Connecticut

Daniel Johnson, 2006,  PhD  (MS, NCSU); Postdoc Oregon State University USFS), Assistant Professor, Ohio University currently Asst Prof, Univ Idaho, Moscow

Keith Reinhardt, PhD 2009 (MS, Univ Virginia; Assist Prof, Idaho State Univ,., Idaho Sate Univ)

Nicole Hughes, PhD 2009(MS, Appalachian State Univ) WFU Award for best PhD Research; Assistant Professor, High Point University, High Point, NC

Tom Hancock PhD 2009 (MS, UNC Wilmington), Assistant Professor, Methodist University, Fayetteville, NC.

Allison Snow, MS (MS, WFU)

Heather Joesting, PhD (MS, Ohio University; Assistant Professor, Armstrong Atlantic University, Savanna GA)

Carter Berry, PhD, Postdoc, Univ New Hampshre

 

Current

Joesph White, PhD

Mary Jane Carmichael, PhD

Melanie Doyle, PhD

 

POSTDOCTORAL  ASSOCIATES

Dr. Jeffery R. Foster, 1984 to 1987, Ph.D. Dartmouth University, 1984.

Dr. Julian L. Hadley, 1986 to 1989, Ph.D. University of Wyoming, 1986.

Dr. Tad Day, 1987 to 1990, Ph.D. Colorado State University, 1987.

Dr. Dean N. Jordan, 1994-5, PhD University of Wyoming

Dr. Minna Turunen, 1996-7,Artic Center, University of Lapland, FINLAND

Dr. Tao Han, 1996-8, Beijing School of Forestry, China

Dr. Adriana Sanchez, 20011-14

 

UNDERGRADUATE  STUDENTS (worked in lab at WFU, not including Bio 340 students)

Emily Walters                John Track

David Schindler              Reid Larsen

Kelsey McDowell           Christine Manuck

Mike Gier                       Christine D’Alleinne

Mike Sprague                 Craig Brodersen

Spencer Bisset                Samantha Rieger

Judsen Hill                      David Harding

Wreana Best                   Christiana Buckman

Scott Graham                  Sean Taylor

Ben Robb                        Joseph Nuigal

 

JOURNAL  REVIEWS

Ecology, Oecologia Pl. Physiol., Can. J. Forest Research, Forest Science, Arctic, Antarctic & Alpine Research, Can. J. Bot. (now Botany), Botanical Gazette, Crop Science, J. Exp. Botany, Plant Cell & Env., Science, Nature, CRC Press, J. Ecology, Photosynthetica, Photosynthesis Research, Amer. J. Bot., Physiol. Plantarum, Bound. Layer Meterol., New Phytologist, Agric. & Forest. Meteorology., Ecological. Monog., Tree Physiology, Functional Ecology, Forest Ecology and Management, New Zealand Journal of Plant Physiology, New Zealand Journal of Ecology, Ecological Applications, Australian J. Plant Physiology, Amer. Midland Naturalist, Australian J. Plant Ecology, Intern. J. Plant Sciences, Physiologia Plantarum, Oecologia Plantarum, Plant & Soil, J. Range Management, Proc. Nat Acad Sciences, Plant Ecology, For Ecol Management, Can J Forest Res., Trees, Global Climate Change, J Geophysical Res., Global Change Biology, Botany, Plant Ecology, Castanea, Torrey Botanical Club, Botany

 

GRANT  REVIEWS

NSF, USDA, NASA, DOE, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. EPA, U.S. Forest Service, U.S. Park Service, National Geographic Society, BLM, Office of Mined Land Reclamation, Nature Conservancy, Carnegie-Mellon Foundation.

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